Here, we describe the construction and use of a wind tunnel for odor mediated behavioural assays with insects. The wind tunnel design facilitates the release of odor sources by several methods, with and without visual stimuli. Wind tunnel experiments are important methods to identify behaviorally active volatile chemicals.
In this study, we present a novel and effective protocol for the isolation of lymphocytes from Peyer's Patches (PPs), which can be subsequently used for in vivo and in vitro functional assays as well as flow cytometric studies of follicular T helper and germinal center B cells.
Antigen-specific T cells are difficult to characterize or utilize in therapies due to their extremely low frequency. Herein, we provide a protocol to develop a magnetic particle which can bind to antigen-specific T cells to enrich these cells and then to expand them several hundred-fold for both characterization and therapy.
This protocol describes a microinjection methodology that we have standardized and used for several years to deliver specific quantities of nucleic acids directly to the hemolymph of mosquitoes and house flies. This protocol results in minimal injection mortality and allows dose correlated measurements of fecundity.