Li, Ta modified (K,Na)NbO3 single crystals with the size of 18 mm × 18 mm × 10 mm were successfully grown by top-seeded solution growth method, with orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature ~79 °C and Curie temperature ~276 °C. The electromechanical coupling factors k 33 and k t were found to be ~88% and ~65%, respectively. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33 for the c poled crystals reached 255 pC/N. In addition, the electromechanical coupling factor exhibited high stability over the temperature range of -50 °C to 70 °C, making these lead free crystals good candidates for electromechanical applications.
A new methyl 2-(4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)phenyl) acetate 1, together with five known compounds 2-6, was isolated from the culture of the deep sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae SCSIO 05233. The new structure was determined by NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS) and optical rotation analysis. Compound 5 displayed weak inhibitory activities towards K562 and promyelocytic HL-60 with IC50 values of 25.8 and 44.9 ?M, and compound 6 showed strong antifouling activity with EC50 value 8.81 ?g/mL.
Guangzhou, one of China's largest cities and a main trading port in South China, has attracted many African businessmen and traders migrating to the city for financial gains. Previous research has explored the cultural and economic roles of this newly emerging population; however, little is known about their health care experiences while in China. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to assess health care experiences and perceived barriers to health care access among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Overall, African migrants experienced various barriers to accessing health care and were dissatisfied with local health services. The principal barriers to care reported included affordability, legal issues, language barriers, and cultural differences. Facing multiple barriers, African migrants have limited access to care in Guangzhou. Local health settings are not accustomed to the African migrant population, suggesting that providing linguistically and culturally appropriate services may improve access to care for the migrants.
To develop a better understanding of the mechanism responsible for topochemical microcrystal conversion (TMC) from Aurivillius SrBi4Ti4O15 precursors to perovskite SrTiO3 microplatelets, compositional/structural evolutions, morphological development, and reaction interface evolution of the (001) oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 microplatelets were investigated during the conversion process. The results show that multiple topotactic nucleation events of SrTiO3 occurred directly on the surfaces of SrBi4Ti4O15 above 700 °C, while reacting zones of intermediate phase(s) with less Bi(3+) contents were observed to form in the interior of SrBi4Ti4O15. Extensive exfoliation of the precursors occurred generally parallel to the (001) surfaces above 775 °C. At 950 °C, the original single-crystal SrBi4Ti4O15 platelet was replaced by a polycrystalline aggregate consisting of (001) aligned SrTiO3 crystallites and poorly crystallized intermediate phase(s). With further increasing the temperature or holding time, the SrTiO3 phase formed from related intermediate phase(s), and the aligned crystallites were sintered to form dense SrTiO3 with strong (001) orientation. The obtained SrTiO3 microplatelets preserved the shape of SrBi4Ti4O15 and show high chemical and phase purity. This TMC mechanism has general applicability to a variety of compounds and will be very useful for the design and synthesis of novel anisotropic perovskite crystals with high quality in the future.
Mesonephric remnants, usually located deep in the lateral cervical wall, may become hyperplastic resulting in a florid proliferation. These can be misinterpreted as malignant and confused with endocervical adenocarcinomas. Recent data have shown that PAX2 is diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants and hyperplasias. PAX8 is a related transcription protein that is expressed in tissues of müllerian and wolffian origin. In this study, we have investigated the utility of an immunohistochemical panel comprising of PAX8, estrogen receptor (ER), and p16 in the differential diagnosis between mesonephric proliferations and cervical adenocarcinomas. A database search was conducted for cases of mesonephric remnants/hyperplasia/carcinoma of cervix and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical stains for PAX8, ER, and p16 were performed using the avidin-biotin peroxidase technique on the most representative tissue. The search yielded 28 cases of mesonephric proliferations of cervix (15 mesonephric remnants, 12 mesonephric hyperplasias, and 1 mesonephric adenocarcinoma) and 16 cases of cervical adenocarcinomas (15 usual type and 1 adenoma malignum). Immunohistochemically, all the mesonephric proliferations, regardless of being benign or malignant, displayed a consistent staining pattern-diffusely and strongly positive for PAX8, negative for ER, and patchy cytoplasmic staining for p16. The usual type cervical adenocarcinomas exhibited a variable staining pattern with PAX8 and ER but all were strongly and diffusely positive for p16. The case of adenoma malignum was PAX8 positive, ER negative, and showed weak and patchy staining with p16. Our study suggests that a panel of immunohistochemical stains composed of PAX8, p16, and ER is useful in the distinction between mesonephric proliferations and cervical adenocarcinomas.
Glycolytic potential (GP) in skeletal muscle is economically important in the pig industry because of its effect on pork processing yield. We have previously mapped a major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for GP on chromosome 3 in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 intercross. We herein performed a systems genetic analysis to identify the causal variant underlying the phenotype QTL (pQTL). We first conducted genome-wide association analyses in the F2 intercross and an F19 Sutai pig population. The QTL was then refined to an 180-kb interval based on the 2-LOD drop method. We then performed expression QTL (eQTL) mapping using muscle transcriptome data from 497 F2 animals. Within the QTL interval, only one gene (PHKG1) has a cis-eQTL that was colocolizated with pQTL peaked at the same SNP. The PHKG1 gene encodes a catalytic subunit of the phosphorylase kinase (PhK), which functions in the cascade activation of glycogen breakdown. Deep sequencing of PHKG1 revealed a point mutation (C>A) in a splice acceptor site of intron 9, resulting in a 32-bp deletion in the open reading frame and generating a premature stop codon. The aberrant transcript induces nonsense-mediated decay, leading to lower protein level and weaker enzymatic activity in affected animals. The mutation causes an increase of 43% in GP and a decrease of>20% in water-holding capacity of pork. These effects were consistent across the F2 and Sutai populations, as well as Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) hybrid pigs. The unfavorable allele exists predominantly in Duroc-derived pigs. The findings provide new insights into understanding risk factors affecting glucose metabolism, and would greatly contribute to the genetic improvement of meat quality in Duroc related pigs.
Sepsis can often induce diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with localized elaboration of cytokines within the diaphragm. The administration of cisatracurium has been shown to decrease the inflammatory response and to facilitate mechanical ventilation. In this study, we explored whether cisatracurium could attenuate sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: (1) the control group: rats underwent a sham surgical procedure with cecal exposure, but the cecum was neither ligated nor punctured; (2) the CLP group: rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and received a continuous infusion of NaCl 0.9 %; and (3) the Cis?+?CLP group: rats underwent CLP and received a continuous infusion of cisatracurium. After the surgical procedure, all animals underwent controlled mechanical ventilation for 18 h. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon completion of the experimental protocol, diaphragm contractility and HMGB1 protein expression were analyzed. Impaired diaphragm contractile function, including both force-related properties and force-frequency responses, was pronounced after CLP in comparison with that observed in the control rats. Furthermore, CLP elevated serum levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and HMGB1, and induced HMGB1 protein expression in the diaphragm. In contrast, cisatracurium counteracted the sepsis-induced inflammation reaction in the diaphragm and serum and maintained diaphragm function. These data suggest that early infusion of cisatracurium attenuates sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction; this may be attributable to its anti-inflammatory action.
A novel Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithm based on Voronoi Diagram (VD) is proposed and briefed as VD-PTV. The robustness of VD-PTV for pulsatile flow is verified through a test that includes a widely used artificial flow and a classic reference algorithm. The proposed algorithm is then applied to visualize the flow in an artificial abdominal aortic aneurysm included in a pulsatile circulation system that simulates the aortic blood flow in human body. Results show that, large particles tend to gather at the upstream boundary because of the backflow eddies that follow the pulsation. This qualitative description, together with VD-PTV, has laid a foundation for future works that demand high-level quantification.
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dye-based cross-linked fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNs) are facilely prepared via a two-step polymerization process including emulsion polymerization and subsequent anhydride cross-linking. Then, a variety of characterization methods are carried out to determine the performance of the FPNs, which show high dispersibility and strong fluorescence in an aqueous solution due to the hydrophilic carboxyl groups on the surfaces and the AIE components as the cores. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell imaging results suggest that these FPNs are biocompatible for cell imaging. More importantly, this cross-linking strategy is proven to overcome the issue of critical micelle concentration and opens the opportunity to develop more robust fluorescent bioprobes.
Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice specifically lacking estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Administration of a recently developed glucagon-like peptide-1-estrogen (GLP-1-estrogen) conjugate designed to deliver estrogen to GLP1 receptor-enhanced regions effectively targeted bioactive estrogens to the DRN and substantially suppressed binge-like eating in ovariectomized female mice. Administration of GLP-1 alone reduced binge-like eating, but not to the same extent as the GLP-1-estrogen conjugate. Administration of ER?-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT) to murine DRN 5-HT neurons activated these neurons in an ER?-dependent manner. PPT also inhibited a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) current; blockade of the SK current prevented PPT-induced activation of DRN 5-HT neurons. Furthermore, local inhibition of the SK current in the DRN markedly suppressed binge-like eating in female mice. Together, our data indicate that estrogens act upon ER? to inhibit the SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons, thereby activating these neurons to suppress binge-like eating behavior and suggest ER? and/or SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons as potential targets for anti-binge therapies.
The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of the cultivation year on the quality of different ginseng tissues. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ginsenosides were conducted using a UPLC-UV-MS method. Eight main ginsenosides in three tissues (leaf, rhizome and main root) and four parts (periderm, phloem, cambium and xylem) of ginseng aged from 1 to 13 years were determined using a UPLC-PDA method. Additionally, the antioxidant capacities of ginseng leaves were analyzed by the DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods. It was found that the contents of ginsenosides increased with cultivation years, causing a sequential content change of ginsenosides in an organ-specific manner: leaf > rhizome > main root. The ratio between protopanaxatriol (PPT, Rg1, Re and RF) and protopanaxadiol (PPD, Rb1, Rb2, RC and Rd) in the main root remained stable (about 1.0), while it increased in leaf from 1.37 to 3.14 and decreased in the rhizome from 0.99 to 0.72. The amount of ginsenosides accumulated in the periderm was 45.48 mg/g, which was more than twice as high compared with the other three parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ginseng leaves were measured as Trolox equivalents, showing that antioxidant activity increased along with time of cultivation. The results show that the best harvest time for shizhu ginseng is the fifth year of cultivation, and the root and rhizome could be used together within seven planting years for their similar PPT/PPD level. Besides, the quality of the ginseng products would be enhanced with the periderm. The ginseng leaf is rich in ginsenosides and has potential application for its antioxidant capacity.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1? and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm(2)). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease the expression of CD62L and increase the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection.
Patellofemoral (PF) maltracking is a critical factor predisposing to PF pain syndrome. Many novel techniques of measuring patellar tracking remain research tools. This study aimed to develop a method to measure the in vivo patellar tracking and finite helical axis (FHA) by using a static magnetic resonance (MR) based methodology. The geometrical models of PF joint at 0°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of knee flexion were developed from MR images. The approximate patellar tracking was derived from the discrete PF models with a spline interpolation algorithm. The patellar tracking was validated with the previous in vitro and in vivo experiments. The patellar FHA throughout knee flexion was calculated. In the present case, the FHA drew an "L-shaped" curve in the sagittal section. This methodology could advance the examination of PF kinematics in clinics, and may also provide preliminary knowledge on patellar FHA study.
Eight new compounds, sinulolides A-H (1-8), along with two known compounds, ?-methoxy-2,3-dimethyl-butenolide (9) and sinularone D (10), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations were determined on the basis of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis. Compounds 5 and 10 exhibited moderate effects for the inhibition of NF-?B activation.
In China, the prevalence and incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in large-sized cities have drawn much attention. In contrast, there has been a paucity of research focussing on the sexual health of MSM of medium-sized cities. This study fills this important gap in the knowledge by investigating the sexual health of MSM in a medium-sized city (Yangzhou) and a large-sized city (Guangzhou).
The residual levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water, suspended particular matter (SPM) and sediment from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The spatial-temporal distributions and the SPM-water partition of PAHs and their influencing factors were investigated. The potential sources and contributions of PAHs in the sediment were estimated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and probabilistic stable isotopic analysis (PSIA). The results showed that the average residual levels of total PAHs (PAH16) in the water, SPM and sediment were 170.7 ± 70.8 ng/L, 210.7 ± 160.7 ng/L and 908.5 ± 1878.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The same spatial distribution trend of PAH16 in the water, SPM and sediment was found from high to low: river inflows>western lake>eastern lake>water source area. There was an obvious seasonal trend of PAH16 in the water, while no obvious seasonal trend was found in the SPM. The residues and distributions of PAHs in the water, SPM and sediment relied heavily on carbon content. Significant Pearson correlations were found between LogKoc and LogKow as well as some hydro-meteorological factors. Three major sources of PAHs including coal and biomass combustions, and vehicle emissions were identified.
An efficient method for the synthesis of phosphoric fluoride via oxidative coupling between hydrophosphine oxide and NaF is reported. DDQ serves as the oxidizing reagent as well as the hydrogen acceptor. The process involves a Cu(II) catalysis and exhibits great functional group tolerance under mild reaction conditions.
Magnoliae officinalis cortex (MOC), derived from Magnolia officinalis and its variation M. officinalis var. biloba, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous work, 11 hydrophilic ingredients of MOC were isolated and structurally elucidated and four, namely syringin (SG), magnoloside A (MA), magnoloside B (MB) and magnoflorine (MF), showed bioactive effects. Herein, we describe an HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of MA, MB, MF and SG in MOC for the first time. The chromatographic separation of samples was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) by gradient elution with water-acetic acid (pH 3.0) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelengths were set at 265 nm for MF and SG, and 328 nm for MA and MB. The average recovery of the four compounds was from 97.63 to 103.84%. Nearly 100 MOC samples harvested from eight habitats were analyzed in which the contents of the tested compound varied in the range of 0.016-0.350% (MF), 0.010-0.337% (SG), 0.017-3.009% (MB) and 0.077-2.529% (MA). The analysis also indicated that MOC contains a significant amount of phenylethanoid glycosides. This was an unexpected finding because previously lignan was considered to be the main component of MOC.
This work reports an efficient, specific, and sensitive immunoassay protocol for detection of tumor cells by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with two probes. Magnetic nanobeads modified with anti-CD3 were used as capture probes for efficient and fast magnetic separation of Jurkat T cells from a mixture of cells, and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) conjugated with anti-CD2 were used as detection probes for ICP-MS measurement. The capture and detection probes target the Jurkat T cells with high affinity and specificity, while they do not target other CD2/CD3-negative cells such as 97L cells and A549 cells. On the basis of these results, we proposed a new immunoassay for specific detection of Jurkat T cells. The conditions for this immunoassay were carefully optimized, including the incubation time and temperature, the concentration of the labeling probe, and the elution conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of 300-30,000 and the limit of detection of 86 Jurkat T cells were obtained, and the relative standard deviation for seven replicate detection of Jurkat T cells was 5.2% (3000 Jurkat T cells). This method has numerous advantages, including ease of preparation, low sample consumption, and high sensitivity and selectivity. Importantly, the methodology could be extended to the simultaneous detection of other cells based on their cellular biomarkers.
Antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Guangzhou during 2002-2011 showed that resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin was high, while ceftriaxone remained effective although there was a trend towards reduced sensitivity.
Automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and US elastography (UE) have been useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. However, combining these two methods applied in diagnosis of breast lesions has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the inter-examiner reliability of ABVS and UE, and compare diagnostic performance among ABVS, UE, and the combination of these two methods.
A novel sandwich-like structured Co-Al LDH-Carbon Nanotube (CNT) composite has been successfully synthesized by the elegant combination between exfoliated Co-Al LDH nanosheets and modified CNTs, which was achieved through an electrostatic assembly method. It is worth noting that the negatively charged CNTs, sandwiched between the positively charged nanosheets via the electrostatic force, can not only expand the area of contact of electrolyte ions but also highly improve the conductivity. The as-prepared Co-Al LDHs-CNTs composite exhibited a high specific capacitance of 884 F g(-1) and a good cycle stability over 2000 cycles. Therefore, such a facile synthetic route to fabricate the layered structure composite may open a new strategy to prepare other composites with largely enhanced electrochemical properties, which can be of great promise in energy storage device application.
New near-infrared (NIR)-to-green upconversion nanoparticles of Ho(3+)-Yb(3+)-F(-) tridoped TiO2 (UC-F-TiO2) were designed and fabricated via the hydrosol-hydrothermal method. Under 980 nm NIR excitation, UC-F-TiO2 emit strong green upconversion fluorescence with three emission bands at 543, 644, and 751 nm and convert the NIR light in situ to the dye-sensitive visible light that could effectively reduce the distance between upconversion materials and sensitizers; thus, they minimize the loss of the converted light. Our results show that this UC-F-TiO2 offers excellent opportunities for the other types of solar cells applications, such as organic solar cells, c-Si solar cells, multijunction solar cells, and so on. When integrating the UC-F-TiO2 into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), superior total energy conversion efficiency was achieved. Under AM1.5G light, open-circuit voltage reached 0.77 ± 0.01 V, short-circuit current density reached 21.00 ± 0.69 mA cm(-2), which resulted in an impressive overall energy conversion efficiency of 9.91 ± 0.30%, a 37% enhancement compared to DSSCs with pristine TiO2 photoanode.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20-94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late-instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host-parasitoid interactions.
It is shown that the low enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed transesterification of a ?-functionalized alkan-2-ol to its acetate does not correlate at all with the high enantioselectivity of the CALB-catalyzed hydrolysis of the corresponding acetate in water. This lack of correlation is unusual and for unfunctionalized alkan-2-ol derivatives there is a very good correlation between the enantioselectivity of transesterification of the alcohol and hydrolysis of the corresponding acetate (E>200 in both cases). The results confirm previous predictions from molecular modeling. The water effect was mimicked by CALB variant Ala281Ser, which showed an enhanced enantioselectivity in transesterification of ?-functionalized alkan-2-ols compared to wild-type CALB.
Low-cost renewable lignin has been used as a precursor to produce porous carbons. However, to date, it has not been easy to obtain high surface area porous carbon without activation processes or templating agents. Here, we demonstrate that low molecular weight lignin yields highly porous carbon with more graphitization through direct carbonization without additional activation processes or templating agents. We found that molecular weight and oxygen consumption during carbonization are critical factors to obtain high surface area, graphitized porous carbons. This highly porous carbon from low-cost renewable lignin sources is a good candidate for supercapacitor electrode materials.
DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a "lab-on-a-nanoparticle", the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of Boolean logic gate operations, including three basic logic gates, one three-input AND gate, and two complex logic operations, in a digital non-leaky way. In addition, the layered nanoflare can serve as a programmable strategy to sequentially tune the size of nanoparticles, as well as a new fingerprint spectrum technique for intelligent multiplex biosensing. More importantly, the nanoflare developed here can also act as a single entity for intracellular DNA logic gate delivery, without the need of commercial transfection agents or other auxiliary carriers. By incorporating DNA circuits on nanoparticles, the presented layered nanoflare will broaden the applications of DNA circuits in biological systems, and facilitate the development of DNA nanotechnology.
We introduce a technique that limits absorption effects in fluorescence imaging and does not require extensive imaging processing, thus allowing for video rate imaging. The absorption minimization is achieved using spatial frequency domain imaging at a single high spatial frequency with standard three-phase demodulation. At a spatial frequency f ¼ 0.5 mm?1, we demonstrated in both in-vitro phantoms and ex-vivo tissue that the absorption can be significantly reduced. In the real-time implementation, we achieved a video rate of 19 frames?s. This technique has potential in cancer visualization and tumor margin detection.
Accumulating evidence has suggested that concentrations of blood-based circulating micro-ribonucleic acids (microRNAs, miRNAs) in breast tumor patients are significantly higher/lower than that in normal individuals, indicating that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel blood-based biomarkers for breast tumor. However, the results of previous studies on this issue have been inconclusive. Therefore, we perform a meta-analysis to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as molecular markers in blood for the diagnosis of breast tumor. PubMed and other databases were searched to identify eligible studies. The sensitivity and specificity were used to plot the summary receiver operator characteristic curve and calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Finally, 15 articles with a total of 1,428 breast tumor patients and 952 healthy individuals were involved. The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity was 76 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 67-83 %; the specificity was 87 % with 95 % CI of 77-93 %; the PLR was 5.9 with 95 % CI of 3.3-10.4; the NLR was 0.28 with 95 % CI of 0.20-0.39; the DOR was 21 with 95 % CI of 10-44; and the AUC was 0.88 with 95 % CI of 0.84-0.90. The most noteworthy is that multiple-miRNA assay displayed a better diagnostic performance than single-miRNA assay. In summary, the results of the present meta-analysis suggested that blood-based miRNAs may serve as novel molecular biomarkers for breast tumor, with a relative high level of accuracy, especially based on multiple-miRNA assay. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate their potential applicability for breast tumor prognosis, treatment, and surveillance.
With the ever increasing interest in biomedical applications of luminescent probes, the development of novel luminescent nanoparticles which showed high water dispersibility, strong luminescence and excellent biocompatibility has been extensively pursued. In this work, cross-linked luminescent polymeric nanoparticles based on aggregation induced emission (AIE) dyes were fabricated through combination of free radical polymerization and ring-opening reaction using AIE dye as the fluorogen and linker simultaneously. Our results demonstrated that these AIE dye based cross-inked polymeric nanoparticles showed high water dispersibility, remarkable luminescent properties and excellent biocompatibility, is highly potential for biomedical applications.
The influence of phenological stages on chemical composition of Scutellariae Radix (SR), the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, was investigated. In order to deal with a large quantity of samples, a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) was first developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five flavonoids, namely baicalin (baicalein-7-O-?-D-glucuronide, BG), wogonoside (wogonin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide, WG), baicalein (BA), wogonin (WO), oroxylin A (OA) in the samples. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.742-389 ng (r (2) > 0.9999) and satisfactory recoveries were obtained (101.72-104.56 %) with the RSD value below 5.0 %, for all analytes. Also, extraction conditions were optimized to obtain maximum extractive contents of the five flavonoids. Content variations of the five active ingredients in 225 samples from three different origins were investigated in five major phenological periods. It was found that the effect of phenology on the contents of the tested five flavonoids was similar in the three origins. The contents of flavone O-glycosides, i.e., BG and WG accumulated to the highest level in leaf expansion period, while flavonoid aglycones, i.e., BA, WO and OA appeared a maximum concentration in flowering period. The UPLC method established in this study was rapid and of good accuracy, repeatability and resolution, and hence can assist in the quality control of SR.
This study is aimed at developing a high quality, validated finite element (FE) human head model for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) prediction and prevention during vehicle collisions. The geometry of the FE model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile male. The material and structural properties were selected based on a synthesis of current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was simulated explicitly as a hydrostatic fluid by using a surface-based fluid modeling method. The model was validated in the loading condition observed in frontal impact vehicle collision. These validations include the intracranial pressure (ICP), brain motion, impact force and intracranial acceleration response, maximum von Mises stress in the brain, and maximum principal stress in the skull. Overall results obtained in the validation indicated improved biofidelity relative to previous FE models, and the change in the maximum von Mises in the brain is mainly caused by the improvement of the CSF simulation. The model may be used for improving the current injury criteria of the brain and anthropometric test devices.
In this paper, novel biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymer based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholoyloxy)ethyl methacrylate) (mPEG-b-PCL-b-PPEMA) was successfully synthesized. After Michael-addition reactions between amine groups of cystamine and carbon-carbon double bonds of PPEMA segments, the crosslinked reduction-sensitive copolymer mPEG-b-PCL-b-PPEMA-SS- was obtained for efficient delivery and controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells. Both the uncrosslinked and crosslinked copolymers could self-assemble to form nano-sized micelles in aqueous solution, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that the micelles dispersed in spherical shape with nano-size before and after DOX loading. Meanwhile, (1)H NMR spectra in D2O indicated the formation of a lower mobility core by crosslinking method and a solid-like rigid core via further DOX-loaded. As compared to the uncrosslinked copolymer, the core crosslinking structure in mPEG-b-PCL-b-PPEMA-SS- could improve the micellar stability and enhance the drug loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. The in vitro release studies showed more sustained drug release behavior of crosslinked mPEG-b-PCL-b-PPEMA-SS- which could be accelerated quantitatively in response to the reductive condition similar to intracellular environment. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated much more efficient cellular uptake of DOX delivered by mPEG-b-PCL-b-PPEMA-SS-, while MTT assays also demonstrated potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells.
Neuroinflammation plays pivotal roles in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury. Prostaglandins (PGs) as the major inflammatory mediators in the brain participate in the pathophysiological processes of cerebral ischemia injury. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is the rate-limiting enzyme of PGs, and thus it is necessary to characterize of the expression patterns of COX2 and its downstream products at the same time in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Methods: The levels of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2) and the expression of COX2 were detected in the rat hippocampus at different time points after reperfusion (30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 15 d). Results: The COX2 mRNA and protein expressions in hippocampus both remarkably increased at 30 min, and peaked at 7 d after global cerebral I/R compared with the sham-operated group. The level of PGI2 significantly increased at 2 h after reperfusion, with a peak at 48 h, but was still significantly higher than the sham-operated animals at 15 d. TXA2 level decreased at 30 min and 2 h after reperfusion, but significantly increased at 6 h and peaked at 48 h. PGI2/TXA2 ratio increased at 30 min after reperfusion, and peaked at 48 h compared with the sham-operated animals. Conclusions: I/R injury significantly increased the COX2 expression, PGI2 and TXA2 levels, and the PGI2/TXA2 ratio in rat hippocampus in a time-dependent manner. As a consequence, the increased PGI2 level and PGI2/TXA2 ratio may represent a physiological mechanism to protect the brain against the neuronal damage produced by I/R injury.
Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine, and approximately 10% of traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain this material, according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). Although the epidermis (fulingpi in Chinese, or FLP) and the inner parts (baifuling in Chinese, or BFL) of P. cocos had different therapeutic applications in history, studies pertaining to a comparative analysis of their chemical constituents have been scarce. UHPLC-DAD-FT/MS(n) has been used in the current study to identify the triterpene acids present in fungus based on a detailed analysis of the fragmentation behavior of 13 standard compounds. This analysis allowed for the identification of 27 triterpene acids, including five groups of isomers and four potential new compounds. Furthermore, a UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for quantifying the amounts of nine bioactive triterpene acids in samples of the FLP and BFL, including three 3,4-seco-lanostane-type triterpene acids. These results revealed significant differences in the amounts of these compounds in the FLP and BFL samples. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis of the results for the FLP and BFL samples clearly demonstrated that dehydrotumulosic acid, trametenolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid and poricoic acid A were the main compounds contributing to the clusters in FLP and BFL. The observed differences in the chemical compositions of FLP and BFL could provide some explanation of the differences in their clinic applications. This study represents the first reported comprehensive analysis of lanostane-type triterpene acids in FLP and BFL parts of P. cocos.
Understanding the structure-function relationships at cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale requires 3D anatomical and phenotypical maps, currently unavailable for many organs across species. At the root of this knowledge gap is the absence of a method that enables whole-organ imaging. Herein, we present techniques for tissue clearing in which whole organs and bodies are rendered macromolecule-permeable and optically transparent, thereby exposing their cellular structure with intact connectivity. We describe PACT (passive clarity technique), a protocol for passive tissue clearing and immunostaining of intact organs; RIMS (refractive index matching solution), a mounting media for imaging thick tissue; and PARS (perfusion-assisted agent release in situ), a method for whole-body clearing and immunolabeling. We show that in rodents PACT, RIMS, and PARS are compatible with endogenous-fluorescence, immunohistochemistry, RNA single-molecule FISH, long-term storage, and microscopy with cellular and subcellular resolution. These methods are applicable for high-resolution, high-content mapping and phenotyping of normal and pathological elements within intact organs and bodies.
Establishment of a simple, rapid and economical method for quantification and genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is of great importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. We hereby aim to develop a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes.
Cervical cancers/CCs are one of the commonest malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Resveratrol inhibits CC cell growth but its molecular target(s) remains unclear. Since the signaling pathways mediated by STAT3, Notch1 and Wnt2 play beneficial roles in CC formation and progression, the effects of resveratrol on them in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) cells were analyzed. The biological significances of the above signaling for HeLa and SiHa cells were evaluated by treating the cells with STAT3, Wnt or Notch selective inhibitors. The frequencies of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations in 68 cases of CC specimens and 38 non-cancerous cervical epithelia were examined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that HeLa and SiHa cells treated by 100?M resveratrol showed extensive apoptosis, accompanied with suppression of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations. Growth inhibition and apoptosis were found in HeLa and SiHa populations treated by AG490, a STAT3/JAK3 inhibitor but not the ones treated by Notch inhibitor L-685,458 or by Wnt inhibitor XAV-939. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the tissue microarrays showed that the frequencies of Notch1, Notch2, Hes1, Wnt2, Wnt5a and p-STAT3 detection as well as ?-catenin nuclear translocation in CC samples were significantly higher than that of noncancerous group (p<0.01), while the expression rate of PIAS3 was remarkably low in cancer samples (p<0.01). Our results thus demonstrate that STAT3, Wnt and Notch signaling are frequently co-activated in human CC cells and specimens and resveratrol can concurrently inhibit those signaling activations and meanwhile lead cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells to growth arrest and apoptosis. STAT3 signaling is more critical for CC cells and is the major target of resveratrol because selective inhibition of STAT3 rather than Wnt or Notch activation commits SiHa and HeLa cells to apoptosis.
To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.
Self-assembly of polymeric materials to form nanoparticles is a particularly promising strategy for various biomedical applications, however, these self-assembling systems often encounter the critical micelle concentration (CMC) issue, as the nanoparticles is usually unstable at low concentration. Therefore, stable cross-linked fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNs) were covalently constructed from an aggregation induced emission (AIE) dye, itaconic anhydride, poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacylate and polyethylenimine. These obtained PhE-ITA-20%(80%) FPNs were fully characterized by a series of techniques including (1)H NMR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, FT-IR spectra, transmission electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and dynamic light scattering. Such FPNs emitted intense fluorescence due to the introduction of aggregation induced emission dye. More importantly, the FPNs were found extremely stable in physiological solution even below the CMC owing to their cross-linked architectures. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of the FPNs were further investigated to explore their potential biomedical applications, the demonstrated excellent biocompatibility made them promising for cell imaging.
Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) of the cervix is a human papilloma virus (HPV) associated high grade intraepithelial columnar cell neoplasm that is thought to arise from the reserve cells of the transformation zone. It is composed of immature stratified cells that display intracytoplasmic mucin and is commonly associated with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and invasive carcinoma. Here, we describe the cytologic features of SMILE and discuss its pitfalls in cervical cytology. A 51-year-old woman was diagnosed with SMILE on a cervical biopsy. Histologically, the dysplastic epithelium showed enlarged nuclei with increased nuclear density and presence of mucin-producing columnar cells throughout its thickness. The slides from the last two Pap tests (ThinPrep) performed on the patient were reviewed and compared with the histology. Cytologically, groups of atypical endocervical glandular cells were seen on both Pap tests. These groups showed mild nuclear crowding, slightly enlarged nuclei, nuclear hyperchromasia, and indistinct nucleoli. The borders of these cell groups were relatively smooth. Original cytologic diagnosis was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in both instances. HPV (Hybrid Capture 2) testing was positive on both occasions. Similar to the histology, cytologic features of SMILE are subtle. The features are not typical for AIS or for HSIL and could easily be misinterpreted as reactive. This report emphasizes that careful review of crowded groups of glandular cells in HPV positive women is absolutely critical. Based on our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of these lesions.
To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10?mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45?mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40?min and reperfusion for 120?min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
To obtain effective adsorbent that can remove emerging organic pollutant of triclosan (TCS) in aquatic environment, different ester-containing Gemini surfactant-modified MMT (EMMT) were prepared under microwave irradiation. The whole process was rapid, uniform, easy and energy-efficient. The structures and morphology of EMMT were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, SEM and TGA. The results revealed that the saturated intercalation amount of this surfactant was 0.8 times to cation exchange capacity (CEC) of MMT, and there was electrostatic interaction between ester-containing Gemini surfactant and MMT. In addition, they bound in the ways of intercalation, intercalation-adsorption or adsorption, which relied on the dosage of the surfactant. The surface of EMMT was hydrophobic, rough and fluffy, which contributed to its strong adsorption capacity. The adsorption equilibrium data of EMMT for TCS were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption model. The result showed that Langmuir isothermal adsorption model could describe the adsorption behavior better, the adsorption behavior of TCS on EMMT was confirmed to a surface monolayer adsorption, and notably the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity was up to 133 mg/g. Therefore, this work lays important foundation on developing effective and safe absorbent materials for the treatment of emerging organic pollutants.
The Tibetan pig is one of domestic animals indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Several geographically isolated pig populations are distributed throughout the Plateau. It remained an open question if these populations have experienced different demographic histories and have evolved independent adaptive loci for the harsh environment of the Plateau. To address these questions, we herein investigated?~?40,000 genetic variants across the pig genome in a broad panel of 678 individuals from 5 Tibetan geographic populations and 34 lowland breeds.
An aggregation induced emission dye (RNH2) with two amino end-groups was facilely incorporated into stable cross-linked fluorescent organic nanoparticles via room temperature anhydride ring-opening polymerization and consecutive cross-linking with polyethylene polyamine. Thus obtained RO-OA-PEPA FONs were characterized by a series of techniques including (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectrum, fluorescent spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of RO-OA-PEPA FONs were further investigated to explore their potential biomedical application. We demonstrated that such FONs showed high-water dispersibility, strong red fluorescence, stable uniform morphology (100-200 nm) and excellent biocompatibility, making them promising for cell imaging application.
Atherosclerosis is a typical complex multi-factorial disease and many molecules at different levels and pathways were involved in its development. Some studies have investigated the dysregulation in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA or DNA methylation level, respectively. However, to our knowledge, the studies that integrated these data and revealed the abnormal networks of atherosclerosis have not been reported. Using microarray technology, we analyzed the omics data in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation levels. Our results demonstrated that the global DNA methylation and expression of miRNA/mRNA were significantly decreased in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal vascular tissue. The interaction network constructed using the integrative data revealed many genes, cellular processes and signaling pathways which were widely considered to play crucial roles in atherosclerosis and also revealed some genes, miRNAs or signaling pathways which have not been investigated in atherosclerosis until now (e.g. miR-519d and SNTB2). Moreover, the overall protein ubiquitination in atherosclerotic plaque was significantly increased. The proteasome activity was increased early but decreased in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study revealed many classic and novel genes and miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis and indicated the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome system on atherosclerosis might be closely related to the course of atherosclerosis. However, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of atherosclerosis still needs more research.
Based on the objects polarization effects, polarization is a newly emerging method in the field of remote sensing. Both objects and atmosphere have polarization effects, however, the atmospheres polarization effects are much stronger than that of objects. Consequently, atmosphere polarization effects will interfere or even cover objects when observing with sensors. How to maximally eliminate the polarized effects generated by the atmosphere is a crucial problem in polarization remote sensing. Atmospheric neutral point is an area where the degree of atmosphere polarization is near to zero; therefore, if sensors are set up in this area, atmosphere polarization would be greatly eliminated, which is the main content of separating the effects between objects and atmosphere by its neutral point method. In this paper, after processing and analyzing the experimental data got from the first polarization remote sensing flight experiment with atmosphere neutral point, the degree of polarization images captured in neutral and non-neutral point area were obtained, and it can be seen that the main value of polarized degree of images got in neutral point area was obviously smaller than that in non-neutral point area. The results showed that the theory mentioned above was logical and practical. An innovation in our study is that the requirements needed in polarization remote sensing flight with neutral point were clarified. In the meantime, a qualitative conclusion was drawn that observing with longer wavelength is more applicable to polarization remote sensing.
Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) like petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents have resulted in contamination of soils and ground water, which aroused widespread concern. Its quite important to delineate pollution area for remediation according to different soil types with pollutants properties in consideration. In this paper, a two-dimension visual sand box apparatus was constructed, with four typical NAPLs selected for infiltration experiments conducted in initially dry porous media. The main driving force was identified and fingering patterns were compared. The fractal dimension was used to give quantitative description. The present work indicates that the main driving force was capillary forces and the mechanism was the capillary fingering. The fingers varied from skeletal patterns to fleshy patterns and the infiltration area increased when the capillary number and the bond number decreased for NAPLs with the same level of viscosity. The high viscous force resulted in larger finger width and infiltration area. The same change between fluids happened in finer media. Fractal dimensions were positively correlated with the finger width and infiltration area, which is helpful in the pollution area characterization.
We present a method based on a Fabry-Perot model to efficiently and accurately estimate optical constants of wafer samples in transmission-only measurements performed by a vector network analyzer (VNA). The method is demonstrated on two separate wafer samples: one of silicon and the other of polymethylmethacrylate. Results show that the method can not only acquire optical constants accurately and simply over a broad frequency domain but also overcome the limitations of calculation for dispersive and lossy materials to which existing methods are susceptible, such as those based on VNA-driven quasi-optical transmissometers and terahertz time-domain spectrometry.
Increasing evidence has shown that the deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is closely related to the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To screen for HCC-specific miRNAs, this study investigated the differentially expressed miRNAs between HCC and matched non-tumorous tissue (NT).
Studies on the association between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 polymorphism and breast cancer risk have reported conflicting results. To characterize the relationship between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk, we conducted a comprehensive literature search for relevant studies and performed a meta-analysis. A total of four studies including 5280 cases and 6026 controls were eligible for our analysis. Overall, we did find that this polymorphism correlates with breast cancer risk [TT versus GG: odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.40; GT versus GG: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19; T versus G: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19]. Furthermore, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we did also find that this polymorphism associated with an increased breast cancer risk in white individuals (T versus G: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.18). In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that the rs12255372 T allele is a low-penetrant risk factor for breast carcinogenesis. In the future, larger-scale and more well-designed studies based on homogeneous breast cancer patients are needed to validate our findings, especially in Asians.
Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) are highly heritable traits that are used clinically to evaluate risk for cardiovascular disease in humans. In this study, we applied a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,075 pigs from two populations and gene expression studies on 497 liver samples to dissect the genetic basis of serum lipids in a pig model.
Aptamer-based fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assays have attracted great interest in recent years. However, a key factor that determines FA value is molar mass, thus limiting the utility of this assay for the detection of small molecules. To solve this problem, streptavidin, as a molar mass amplifier, was used in a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to construct a target-triggered cyclic assembly of DNA-protein hybrid nanowires for highly sensitive detection of small molecules by fluorescence anisotropy. In this assay, one blocking DNA strand is released by target-aptamer recognition. The DNA then serves as an initiator to trigger enzyme-free autonomous cross-opening of hairpin probes via HCR to form a DNA nanowire for further assembly of streptavidin. Using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the small molecule target, this novel dual-amplified, aptamer-based FA assay affords high sensitivity with a detection limit of 100 nM. This limit of detection (LOD) is much lower than that of the disassembly approach without HCR amplification or the assembly strategy without streptavidin. In contrast to the previous turn-off disassembly approaches based on nonspecific interactions between the aptamer probe and amplification moieties, the proposed aptamer-based FA assay method exhibits a turn-on response to ATP, which can increase sensing reliability and reduce the risk of false hits. Moreover, because of its resistance to environmental interferences, this FA assay has been successfully applied for direct detection of 0.5 ?M ATP in complex biological samples, including cell media, human urine, and human serum, demonstrating its practicality in real complex biological systems.
A novel R2(O)P-directed Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H hydroxylation to synthesize various substituted 2-phosphorylbiphenyl-2-ol compounds is described. Notably, the reaction operates under mild conditions and shows good functional group tolerance, high selectivity, and yield.
We report the discovery and translational therapeutic efficacy of a peptide with potent, balanced co-agonism at both of the receptors for the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). This unimolecular dual incretin is derived from an intermixed sequence of GLP-1 and GIP, and demonstrated enhanced antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic efficacy relative to selective GLP-1 agonists. Notably, this superior efficacy translated across rodent models of obesity and diabetes, including db/db mice and ZDF rats, to primates (cynomolgus monkeys and humans). Furthermore, this co-agonist exhibited synergism in reducing fat mass in obese rodents, whereas a selective GIP agonist demonstrated negligible weight-lowering efficacy. The unimolecular dual incretins corrected two causal mechanisms of diabesity, adiposity-induced insulin resistance and pancreatic insulin deficiency, more effectively than did selective mono-agonists. The duration of action of the unimolecular dual incretins was refined through site-specific lipidation or PEGylation to support less frequent administration. These peptides provide comparable pharmacology to the native peptides and enhanced efficacy relative to similarly modified selective GLP-1 agonists. The pharmacokinetic enhancement lessened peak drug exposure and, in combination with less dependence on GLP-1-mediated pharmacology, avoided the adverse gastrointestinal effects that typify selective GLP-1-based agonists. This discovery and validation of a balanced and high-potency dual incretin agonist enables a more physiological approach to management of diseases associated with impaired glucose tolerance.
One of the most significant components for implantable bioelectronic devices is the interface between the microelectrodes and the tissue or cells for disease diagnosis or treatment. To make the devices work efficiently and safely in vivo, the electrode-tissue interface should not only be confined in micro scale, but also possesses excellent electrochemical characteristic, stability and biocompatibility. Considering the enhancement of many composite materials by combining graphene oxide (GO) for its multiple advantages, we dope graphene oxide into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forming a composite film by electrochemical deposition for electrode site modification. As a consequence, not only the enlargement of efficient surface area, but also the development of impedance, charge storage capacity and charge injection limit contribute to the excellent electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the stability and biocompatibility are confirmed by numerously repeated usage test and cell proliferation and attachment examination, respectively. As electrode-tissue interface, this biomaterial opens a new gate for tissue engineering and implantable electrophysiological devices.
Spectral calibration must be carried out in order to determine its central wavelength and half-wave band width of each pixel before the usage of imaging spectrometer. But it was found out that these parameters vary as environment changes. The present paper studies the effect based on test field data. The authors analyzed the optical structure and compared the working environmental parameters. Then a theoretical model is established and the influences of vibration, distortion and temperature parameters are evaluated. The theoretical model and the caculation results are in good consistency, which testifies the theoretical model. This research will shed some light on the high accuracy spectral calibration of the grating based imaging spectrometer and its manufacture.
In this paper, novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers based on folate-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-copolycarbonates (FA-PEG-b-P(MAC-co-DTC)) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-copolycarbonates (mPEG-b-P(MAC-co-DTC)) were successfully synthesized for targeted and efficient delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells. Immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (IPPL) was employed as the catalyst to perform the ring-opening copolymerization in bulk, while the folate-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (FA-PEG) or methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) was used as the initiator. The resulting copolymers, characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC, could self-assemble to form nano-sized micelles in aqueous solution by dialysis method. P(MAC-co-DTC) acted as the hydrophobic core, thereby aggregating hydrophilic PEG chains as the outer shell with FA as targeting ligand located at the surface of the polymeric micelles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that the micelles dispersed in spherical shape with nano-size before and after DOX loading. Both the FA-conjugated and non-conjugated block copolymers showed low cellular cytotoxicity. Furthermore, as compared to the non-conjugated copolymers, much more efficient cellular uptake of the FA-conjugated copolymers via FA-receptor-mediated endocytosis could be observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), while MTT assays also demonstrated highly potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells.
The priority control screening (PCS) and water quality benchmarking (WQB) of toxic chemicals in water are key steps to ensure the safety of drinking water and aquatic ecosystem that is the crucial goal of water environment management. Owing to the different levels of social-economic development in different countries and regions, the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals must be determined in accordance with their specific water environment situations. However, in China, the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals in water were mainly introduced from the other countries. A method for the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals in water based on the ecological risks was proposed, and a platform named Bayesian Matbugs Calculator (BMC) was developed. As a case study, the WQB and PCS of sixty-nine PTSs based their ecological risks were performed on the basis of one-year monthly monitoring in Lake Chaohu. The results showed that the current national water quality criteria (WQC) would underestimate the toxicological risk to organisms in this aquatic ecosystem. It appears necessary to develop new WQC for the protection of aquatic organisms in Lake Chaohu. Four grades of priority control chemicals (PCCs) in Lake Chaohu were proposed. The highest priority was assigned to organonitrogen-phosphorus pesticides, including parathion, dichlorvos, malathion, omethoate, and di-n-butyl phthalate. However, the national "blacklist" of toxic compounds only covered 7 of 20 PCCs, indicating that the other 13 PCCs would not be controlled efficiently. Because the pollution pattern of PTSs in various water bodies might be quite different, we appealed to the governments to screen the regional PPC lists or develop a more comprehensive national list for aquatic ecosystem protection in China.
Four new sesquiterpenes, sinularianins C-F (3-6), together with known sinularianins A (1) and B (2) were identified from a South China Sea soft coral Sinularia sp. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for inhibition of NF-?B activation using the cell-based HEK293 NF-?B luciferase reporter gene assay. Compounds 1 and 4 were exhibited a potent effect with inhibitory rates of 41.3% and 43.0% at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, respectively.
A variety of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases. The detection of abnormal ANA titers is a critical criterion for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard method to determine the presence of ANA and therefore provides information about the localization of autoantigens that are useful for diagnosis. However, its utility was limited in prognosing and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. On the other hand, ELISA for the detection of ANA can quantitate ANA but could not provide further information about the localization of the autoantigens. It would be ideal to integrate both of the quantitative and qualitative methods. To address this issue, this study was conducted to quantitatively detect ANAs by using IIF imaging analysis system. Serum samples from patients with ANA positive (including speckled, homogeneous, nuclear mixture and cytoplasmic mixture patterns) and negative were detected for ANA titers by the classical IIF and analyzed by an image system, the image of each sample was acquired by the digital imaging system and the green fluorescence intensity was quantified by the Image-Pro plus software. A good correlation was found in between two methods and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of various ANA patterns were 0.942 (speckled), 0.942 (homogeneous), 0.923 (nuclear mixture) and 0.760 (cytoplasmic mixture), respectively. The fluorescence density was linearly correlated with the log of ANA titers in various ANA patterns (R(2)>0.95). Moreover, the novel ANA quantitation method showed good reproducibility (F=0.091, p>0.05) with mean±SD and CV% of positive, and negative quality controls were equal to 126.4±9.6 and 7.6%, 10.4±1.25 and 12.0%, respectively. In conclusion, our novel ANA quantitation method can provide both of the fluorescence density, which could precisely reflect the fluctuate of ANAs level in patients serum and the useful information about the localization of the autoantigens for clinician in diagnosing and monitoring diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.