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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Error-prone translesion synthesis past DNA-peptide crosslinks conjugated to the major groove of DNA via C5 of thymidine.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are exceptionally bulky, structurally diverse DNA adducts formed in cells upon exposure to endogenous and exogenous bis-electrophiles, reactive oxygen species, and ionizing radiation. If not repaired, DPCs can induce toxicity and mutations. It has been proposed that the protein component of a DPC is proteolytically degraded, giving rise to smaller DNA-peptide conjugates, which can be subject to nucleotide excision repair and replication bypass. In the present study, polymerase bypass of model DNA-peptide conjugates structurally analogous to the lesions induced by reactive oxygen species and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors was examined. DNA oligomers containing site-specific DNA-peptide conjugates were generated by copper-catalyzed [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition between an alkyne functionalized C5-thymidine in DNA and an azide-containing 10-mer peptide. The resulting DNA-peptide conjugates were subjected to steady-state kinetic experiments in the presence of recombinant human lesion bypass polymerases ? and ?, followed by PAGE-based assays to determine the catalytic efficiency and the misinsertion frequency opposite the lesion. We found that hPol ? and ? can incorporate A, G, C, or T opposite the C5-dT-conjugated DNA-peptide conjugates, while hPol ? preferentially inserts G opposite the lesion. Furthermore, HPLC-ESI--MS/MS sequencing of the extension products has revealed that postlesion synthesis was highly error prone, resulting in mutations opposite the adducted site or at the +1 position from the adduct and multiple deletions. Collectively, our results indicate that replication bypass of peptides conjugated to the C-5 position of thymine by human TLS polymerases leads to large numbers of base substitution and frameshift mutations.
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Curcumin enhances the production of major structural components of elastic fibers, elastin, and fibrillin-1, in normal human fibroblast cells.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Curcumin is the major component of the yellow extract derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa, which is also a main bioactive polyphenol and has been generally used as a spice, food additive, and herbal medicine. In this presented study, we found that curcumin can enhance the production of major structural components of elastic fibers, elastin, and fibrillin-1, in normal human fibroblast cells via increasing ELN and FBN1 promoters' activities. With 2 ?M curcumin treatment, the enhanced tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 protein amounts in Detroit 551 cells were approximately 134 and 130% of control, respectively. Therefore, our results demonstrated that curcumin may be used as a functional compound and applied to drugs, foods, and cosmetics in the future.
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Impact of hospital volume on long-term survival after resection for oesophageal cancer: a population-based study in Taiwan†.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Previous studies have shown that patients who undergo oesophageal cancer surgery in high-volume hospitals have lower postoperative mortality rates. However, the impact of hospital volume on long-term survival is controversial.
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Anxiety and depressive disorders among patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The comorbidity of depression with anxiety disorders is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, worse quality of life, poorer adherence to treatment, and greater suicide risk in cancer patients.
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MicroRNA-145 as one negative regulator of astrogliosis.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Astrogliosis occurs at the lesion site within days to weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI) and involves the proliferation and hypertrophy of astrocytes, leading to glia scar formation. Changes in gene expression by deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the process of central nervous system neurodegeneration. Here, we report that mir-145, a miRNA enriched in rat spinal neurons and astrocytes, was downregulated at 1 week and 1 month after SCI. Our in vitro studies using astrocytes prepared from neonatal spinal cord tissues indicated that potent inflammagen lipopolysaccharide downregulated mir-145 expression in astrocytes, suggesting that SCI-triggered inflammatory signaling pathways could play the inhibitory role in astrocytic mir-145 expression. To induce overexpression of mir-145 in astrocytes at the spinal cord lesion site, we developed a lentivirus-mediated pre-miRNA delivery system using the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte-specific intermediate filament. The results indicated that astrocyte-specific overexpression of mir-145 reduced astrocytic cell density at the lesion border of the injured spinal cord. In parallel, overexpression of mir-145 reduced the size of astrocytes and the number of related cell processes, as well as cell proliferation and migration. Through a luciferase reporter system, we found that GFAP and c-myc were the two potential targets of mir-145 in astrocytes. Together, the findings demonstrate the novel role of mir-145 in the regulation of astrocytic dynamics, and reveal that the downregulation of mir-145 in astrocytes is a critical factor inducing astrogliosis after SCI. GLIA 2014.
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Applying RGB LED in full-field optical coherence tomography for real-time full-color tissue imaging.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A conventional handheld skin camera is suitable for 2D inspection of shallow skin. Due to its high resolution and noninvasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a popular medical-imaging technology. Among OCT schemes, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is suitable for rapid en face imaging, as it uses a 2D imaging device for pixel processing of a sample plane. Because of its wide bandwidth and long lifetime, an RGB LED was chosen in an FF-OCT system among three source candidates in this study. A full-color tissue image and real-time video were obtained from the system to demonstrate the potential of the RGB LED FF-OCT system in medical imaging. All devices used here can be integrated by micro-optoelectromechanical technology into a handheld model. Noninvasive, real-time, full-color handheld imaging capability contributes to advance dermatology and cosmetology.
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Systematic review of apraxia treatments to improve occupational performance outcomes.
OTJR (Thorofare N J)
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The objective was to assess effectiveness of apraxia treatments using a systematic review. In contrast to previous reviews, each study was rated as to its applicability to occupational therapy practice and its focus on occupational performance using the FAME rating system (defined by four categories: Feasibility, Appropriateness, Meaningfulness, Effectiveness). This systematic review included eight studies: four randomized controlled trials (level 1 evidence) and four pre-post designs (level 3 evidence). Three treatment approaches were reported: errorless learning with training of details; gesture training; and strategy training. FAME scores ranged from A to C. All studies reported significant treatment effects, but only one demonstrated an impact on observed occupational performance that transferred from clinic to home. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 2014; 34(4):183-192.].
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Damage detection of structures identified with deterministic-stochastic models using seismic data.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV) is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems.
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Downregulation of BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 sensitizes glioma cells to temozolomide.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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We previously found that BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3) was highly expressed in tumorigenic rat glioma cells. However, the functional role of BRCC3 in human glioma cells remains to be characterized. This study indicated that the upregulation of BRCC3 expression was induced in two human malignant glioblastoma U251 and A172 cell lines following exposure to the alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA repair-associated genes (i.e. BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51 and FANCD2) were also increased in U251 and A172 cells after treatment with TMZ. BRCC3 gene knockdown through lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown approach not only significantly reduced the clonogenic and migratory abilities of U251 and A172 cells, but also enhanced their sensitization to TMZ. The increase in phosphorylated H2AX foci (?H2AX) formation, an indicator of DNA damage, persisted in TMZ-treated glioma cells with stable knockdown BRCC3 expression, suggesting that BRCC3 gene deficiency is associated with DNA repair impairment. In summary, we demonstrate that by inducing DNA repair, BRCC3 renders glioma cells resistant to TMZ. The findings point to BRCC3 as a potential target for treatment of alkylating drug-resistant glioma.
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Transmission electron microscopy enables the reconstruction of the catenane and ring forms of CS2 hydrolase.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Transmission electron microscopic studies on CS2 hydrolase provide direct evidence for the existence of the hexadecameric catenane and octameric ring topologies. Reconstructions of both protein assemblies are in good agreement with crystallographic analyses of the catenane and ring forms of CS2 hydrolase.
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Encapsidated hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase is poised on an ordered RNA lattice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Assembly of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) virion begins with the formation of an RNA-filled core composed of a symmetrical capsid (built of core protein), viral pregenomic RNA, and viral reverse transcriptase. To generate the circular dsDNA genome of HBV, reverse transcription requires multiple template switches within the confines of the capsid. To date, most anti-HBV therapeutics target this reverse transcription process. The detailed molecular mechanisms of this crucial process are poorly understood because of the lack of structural information. We hypothesized that capsid, RNA, and viral reverse transcriptase would need a precise geometric organization to accomplish reverse transcription. Here we present the asymmetric structure of authentic RNA-filled cores, determined to 14.5-Å resolution from cryo-EM data. Capsid and RNA are concentric. On the interior of the RNA, we see a distinct donut-like density, assigned to viral reverse transcriptase, which pins the viral pregenomic RNA to the capsid inner surface. The observation of a unique ordered structure inside the core suggests that assembly and the first steps of reverse transcription follow a single, determinate pathway and strongly suggests that all subsequent steps in DNA synthesis do as well.
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Targeting tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 assembly reverses Th17-mediated colitis through boosting a Th2 response.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The soluble preligand assembly domain (PLAD) of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) interferes with receptor trimerisation to block downstream signalling, and mediates Th17 suppression. We explored the therapeutic potential of recombinant PLAD.Fc protein on a spontaneous experimental colitis.
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Engineering protein farnesyltransferase for enzymatic protein labeling applications.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Creating covalent protein conjugates is an active area of research due to the wide range of uses for protein conjugates spanning everything from biological studies to protein therapeutics. Protein Farnesyltransferase (PFTase) has been used for the creation of site-specific protein conjugates, and a number of PFTase substrates have been developed to facilitate that work. PFTase is an effective catalyst for protein modification because it transfers Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) analogues to protein substrates on a cysteine four residues from the C-terminus. While much work has been done to synthesize various FPP analogues, there are few reports investigating how mutations in PFTase alter the kinetics with these unnatural analogues. Herein we examined how different mutations within the PFTase active site alter the kinetics of the PFTase reaction with a series of large FPP analogues. We found that mutating either a single tryptophan or tyrosine residue to alanine results in greatly improved catalytic parameters, particularly in kcat. Mutation of tryptophan 102? to alanine caused a 4-fold increase in kcat and a 10-fold decrease in KM for a benzaldehyde-containing FPP analogue resulting in an overall 40-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Similarly, mutation of tyrosine 205? to alanine caused a 25-fold increase in kcat and a 10-fold decrease in KM for a coumarin-containing analogue leading to a 300-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Smaller but significant changes in catalytic parameters were also obtained for cyclo-octene- and NBD-containing FPP analogues. The latter compound was used to create a fluorescently labeled form of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), a protein of therapeutic importance. Additionally, computational modeling was performed to study how the large non-natural isoprenoid analogues can fit into the active sites enlarged via mutagenesis. Overall, these results demonstrate that PFTase can be improved via mutagenesis in ways that will be useful for protein engineering and the creation of site-specific protein conjugates.
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Synthesis of site-specific DNA-protein conjugates and their effects on DNA replication.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions that form in the genome upon exposure to common antitumor drugs, environmental/occupational toxins, ionizing radiation, and endogenous free-radical-generating systems. As a result of their considerable size and their pronounced effects on DNA-protein interactions, DPCs can interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially leading to mutagenesis, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity. However, the biological consequences of these ubiquitous lesions are not fully understood due to the difficulty of generating DNA substrates containing structurally defined, site-specific DPCs. In the present study, site-specific cross-links between the two biomolecules were generated by copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition (click reaction) between an alkyne group from 5-(octa-1,7-diynyl)-uracil in DNA and an azide group within engineered proteins/polypeptides. The resulting DPC substrates were subjected to in vitro primer extension in the presence of human lesion bypass DNA polymerases ?, ?, ?, and ?. We found that DPC lesions to the green fluorescent protein and a 23-mer peptide completely blocked DNA replication, while the cross-link to a 10-mer peptide was bypassed. These results indicate that the polymerases cannot read through the larger DPC lesions and further suggest that proteolytic degradation may be required to remove the replication block imposed by bulky DPC adducts.
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Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.
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Rapid analysis of protein farnesyltransferase substrate specificity using peptide libraries and isoprenoid diphosphate analogues.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Protein farnesytransferase (PFTase) catalyzes the farnesylation of proteins with a carboxy-terminal tetrapeptide sequence denoted as a Ca1a2X box. To explore the specificity of this enzyme, an important therapeutic target, solid-phase peptide synthesis in concert with a peptide inversion strategy was used to prepare two libraries, each containing 380 peptides. The libraries were screened using an alkyne-containing isoprenoid analogue followed by click chemistry with biotin azide and subsequent visualization with streptavidin-AP. Screening of the CVa2X and CCa2X libraries with Rattus norvegicus PFTase revealed reaction by many known recognition sequences as well as numerous unknown ones. Some of the latter occur in the genomes of bacteria and viruses and may be important for pathogenesis, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention. Screening of the CVa2X library with alkyne-functionalized isoprenoid substrates showed that those prepared from C10 or C15 precursors gave similar results, whereas the analogue synthesized from a C5 unit gave a different pattern of reactivity. Lastly, the substrate specificities of PFTases from three organisms (R. norvegicus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans) were compared using CVa2X libraries. R. norvegicus PFTase was found to share more peptide substrates with S. cerevisiae PFTase than with C. albicans PFTase. In general, this method is a highly efficient strategy for rapidly probing the specificity of this important enzyme.
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Single-Incision Versus Multiple-Incision Thoracoscopic Lobectomy and Segmentectomy: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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To compare the perioperative outcomes of single-incision and multiple-incision thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy.
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A novel rat full-thickness hemi-abdominal wall/hindlimb osteomyocutaneous combined flap: influence of allograft mass and vascularized bone marrow content on vascularized composite allograft survival.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Vascularized bone marrow transplantation (VBMT) appears to promote tolerance for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). However, it is unclear whether VBMT is critical for tolerance induction and, if so, whether there is a finite amount of VCA that VBMT can support. We investigated this with a novel VCA combined flap model incorporating full-thickness hemiabdominal wall and hindlimb osteomyocutaneous (HAW/HLOMC) flaps. Effects of allograft mass (AM) and VBMT on VCA outcome were studied by comparing HAW/HLOMC VCAs with fully MHC-mismatched BN donors and Lewis recipients. Control groups did not receive treatments following transplantation. Treatment groups received a short course of cyclosporine A (CsA), antilymphocyte serum, and three doses of adipocyte-derived stem cells (POD 1, 8, and 15). The results showed that all flaps in control allogeneic groups rejected soon after VCAs. Treatment significantly prolonged allograft survival. Three of eight recipients in HLOMC treatment group had allografts survive long-term and developed donor-specific tolerance. Significantly higher peripheral chimerism was observed in HLOMC than other groups. It is concluded that the relative amount of AM to VBMT is a critical factor influencing long-term allograft survival. Accordingly, VBMT content compared with VCA mass may be an important consideration for VCA in humans.
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Photochemical redox reactions of copper(II)-alanine complexes in aqueous solutions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The photochemical redox reactions of Cu(II)/alanine complexes have been studied in deaerated solutions over an extensive range of pH, Cu(II) concentration, and alanine concentration. Under irradiation, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer results in the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and the concomitant oxidation of alanine, which produces ammonia and acetaldehyde. Molar absorptivities and quantum yields of photoproducts for Cu(II)/alanine complexes at 313 nm are characterized mainly with the equilibrium Cu(II) speciation where the presence of simultaneously existing Cu(II) species is taken into account. By applying regression analysis, individual Cu(I) quantum yields are determined to be 0.094 ± 0.014 for the 1:1 complex (CuL) and 0.064 ± 0.012 for the 1:2 complex (CuL2). Individual quantum yields of ammonia are 0.055 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.036 ± 0.005 for CuL2. Individual quantum yields of acetaldehyde are 0.030 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.024 ± 0.007 for CuL2. CuL always has larger quantum yields than CuL2, which can be attributed to the Cu(II) stabilizing effect of the second ligand. For both CuL and CuL2, the individual quantum yields of Cu(I), ammonia, and acetaldehyde are in the ratio of 1.8:1:0.7. A reaction mechanism for the formation of the observed photoproducts is proposed.
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Thoracoscopic plication for a huge thoracic meningocele in a patient with neurofibromatosis.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type I are rare, and the optimal treatment is still unknown. Herein, we present the case of a 48-year-old Asian female with a huge thoracic meningocele associated with cutaneous neurofibromatosis type I and kyphoscoliosis of the thoracic spine. The large thoracic meningocele was successfully treated through thoracoscopic plication.
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Two-stage face transplantation: A new concept in vascularized composite allotransplantation.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Background: Animal models and clinical cases of facial allotransplantation have been performed as a single stage procedure. A staged surgery might offer some advantages in selected cases. In this study, a two-stage face transplantation approach was performed on rat and the feasibility and safety were evaluated. Methods: Brown Norway rats were used as donors and Lewis rats as recipients in the allotransplantation groups. A total of 33 hemiface-scalp transplantations were performed. Syngeneic orthotopic transplantations were performed either in one-stage (one single stage surgery; N?=?3), local two-stage [heterothopic transplantation to the neck during the first stage and graft rotation as a pedicled flap to cover the facial defect on postoperative day (POD) 2; N?=?3], or distant two-stage approaches (heterothopic transplantation to the groin during the first stage and free graft transfer to the face on postoperative day 2; N?=?3). In the allotransplantation groups using the same approaches, 12 received no treatment (N?=?4 each subgroup) and 12 received the same tapering dose of cyclosporine (10 to 2 mg/Kg/day; N?=?4 each subgroup). Graft survival and the rejection grades were assessed clinically and pathologically. Results: All syngeneic transplants survived for the follow-up period of 180 days. The mean rejection-free survival and total survival of the allograft in the no treatment group was 6?±?0.3 and 14.3?±?4.5 days in the one-stage group, 6?±?0.4 and 18.5?±?1 days in the local two-stage group and 6?±?0.2 and 14.3?±?5.7 (P?>?0.05). All allografts in the treatment groups did not develop rejection during the 42 days follow-up period. Conclusions: It is feasible, reliable, reproducible, and safe to perform a two-stage face transplantation in rats. This novel approach has the potential to be applied in research and eventually in selected clinical cases of facial allotransplantation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.
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Concurrent dual-scopic management of diaphragm disease.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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With the increasing appliance of minimally invasive approaches in both thoracic and general surgery, more and more diaphragmatic conditions are being managed with laparoscopy or thoracoscopy. Which one is adopted depends on the disease, facility support and surgeon's preference. However, in difficult scenarios such as adhesions, uncertain tumour location or bulky herniated organs, addition of another approach could be beneficial. Here we describe 2 cases, one with metastatic tumours within the diaphragm and another with diaphragmatic hernia in which concurrent thoracoscopic and laparoscopic, so-called dual-scopic, management was performed.
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miRNome traits analysis on endothelial lineage cells discloses biomarker potential circulating microRNAs which affect progenitor activities.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in not only blood vessel development but also post-natal vascular repair. Currently EPCs are defined as early and late EPCs based on their biological properties and their time of appearance during in vitro culture. Both EPC types assist angiogenesis and have been linked to ischemia-related disorders, including coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Malignant transformation in 5071 southern Taiwanese patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Oral cancers can be preceded by clinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The current study evaluated the rate and the time of malignant transformation in the various OPMDs in a cohort of patients from southern Taiwan. Parameters possibly indicative for malignant transformation of OPMDs, such as epidemiological and etiological factors, and clinical and histopathological features were also described.
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A new rat model for orthotopic abdominal wall allotransplantation.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation.
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Participation of young adults with high-functioning autism in Taiwan: a pilot study.
OTJR (Thorofare N J)
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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This pilot study aimed to investigate the activity participation of young adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) living in Taiwan. Eleven young adults with HFA, their caring adults, and 11 matched typically developing youth were recruited across Taiwan. The Adolescent and Young Adult Participation Sort-Taiwanese version (AYAPS-T) was administered to all three groups to compare the activity participation. In addition, youth with HFA identified activities in which they desired to participate and barriers hindering their participation. The results of this study suggest that youth with HFA had lower participation rates in activities across different domains than their typically developing peers. Youth with HFA were able to identify the activities they desired to do and the barriers hindering their participation. No significant differences in participation were found between the results reported by the caring adults and youth with HFA. Occupational therapy practitioners may work on eliminating the personal and environmental barriers that impede participation as youth with HFA transition out of secondary school.
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Hyperkalemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Acute Kidney Injury, and Fatal Dysrhythmias After Consumption of Palytoxin-Contaminated Goldspot Herring.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Severe electrolyte disturbances caused by fish poisoning are rarely reported in the literature. We present an unusual outbreak of palytoxin poisoning associated with the consumption of Goldspot herring (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus). Four family members became ill after eating 2 species of marine fish. The presenting symptoms and signs included bitter taste, oral numbness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hypertension, which were followed by myalgia, limb numbness, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and abnormal cold and warm sensations. The index case manifested hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acute kidney injury, and developed severe cardiac dysrhythmias. He died 21 hours postingestion. Palytoxin and related compounds were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in one of the leftover fish. Palytoxin poisoning is rarely reported and is difficult to diagnose in the absence of laboratory confirmation. Palytoxin poisoning should be considered in patients who manifest hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia after the consumption of marine fish, and timely laboratory analysis should be sought.
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Single-port thoracoscopic rib resection: a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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We describe a method of single-port thoracoscopic rib resection using a Gigli saw. Rib resection is typically performed with a large skin incision and soft tissue dissection. Some authors have described a thoracoscopic approach for rib resection from the inner side of the chest wall instead of the outside to decrease pain and improve quality of life. A 41-year-old Chinese male received single-port thoracoscopic rib resection with satisfactory recovery. We present the technique, which may expand the indications of single-port thoracoscopic procedures.
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Developing an ICF core set for sub-acute stages of spinal cord injury in Taiwan: a preliminary study.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop an ICF core set describing sub-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) specifically for Taiwanese patients. Methods: A consensus process using three rounds of Delphi technique was conducted. Twenty multidisciplinary participants from various institutions were recruited. The questionnaire used in this study comprised 118 ICF second-level categories relevant to the sub-acute stage of SCI. A five-point Likert scale was used, and participants were asked to assign weights to the effect of each category on activities of daily life after SCI. The consensus among ratings was assessed using Spearman's rho and semi-interquartile range (SIQR) indices. The core set for post-acute SCI was developed from categories that attained a mean score of ?3.8 in the third round of the Delphi exercise. Results: The core set for sub-acute SCI contained 58 categories. Of these, 24 comprised the component of body functions (b), 5 comprised body structures (s), 21 comprised activities and participation (d), and 8 comprised environmental factors (e). Conclusion: The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system of disability assessment and verification after people have sustained an SCI. Further validation is required. Implication for Rehabilitation The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system for disability assessment related to SCI among Taiwanese patients. This core set reflected problems commonly encountered by patients with SCI. This core set reflects appropriate cultural and geographic perspectives in adjustment to SCI.
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Survival benefits of postoperative chemoradiation for lymph node-positive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Little is known about the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy after surgery for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This retrospective study aimed to determine whether postoperative chemoradiation improves survival compared with surgery alone.
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Electric-field control of ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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In this Letter, the electric-field control of ferromagnetism was demonstrated in a back-gated Mn-doped ZnO (Mn-ZnO) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistor (FET). The ZnO NWs were synthesized by a thermal evaporation method, and the Mn doping of 1 atom % was subsequently carried out in a MBE system using a gas-phase surface diffusion process. Detailed structural analysis confirmed the single crystallinity of Mn-ZnO NWs and excluded the presence of any precipitates or secondary phases. For the transistor, the field-effect mobility and n-type carrier concentration were estimated to be 0.65 cm(2)/V·s and 6.82 × 10(18) cm(-3), respectively. The magnetic hysteresis curves measured under different temperatures (T = 10-350 K) clearly demonstrate the presence of ferromagnetism above room temperature. It suggests that the effect of quantum confinements in NWs improves Tc, and meanwhile minimizes crystalline defects. The magnetoresistace (MR) of a single Mn-ZnO NW was observed up to 50 K. Most importantly, the gate modulation of the MR ratio was up to 2.5 % at 1.9 K, which implies the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a single Mn-ZnO NW.
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Donor age negatively affects the immunoregulatory properties of both adipose and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Age negatively impacts the biologic features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including decreased expansion kinetics and differentiation potential. Clinically, donor-age may be within a wide spectrum; therefore, investigation of the role of donor's age on immunoregulatory potential is of critical importance to translate stem cell therapies from bench to bedside.
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Learning Thoracoscopic Lobectomy in Resident Training.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Background?Thoracoscopic lobectomy is a safe and effective procedure; however, the ways by which to incorporate this technically demanding procedure into residency training is still unknown. We reported on the outcomes of thoracoscopic lobectomies performed by a single thoracic resident, who was simultaneously undergoing training for both open and thoracoscopic lobectomies. Patients and Methods?Between January 2010, and May 2011, data from 87 consecutive thoracoscopic lobectomies that were performed by a trainee surgeon (B.-Y.W.) were prospectively obtained. Data were grouped into the first 30 and subsequent 57 cases. Patient characteristics, operative data, complications, and surgical pathology were analyzed. Results?The mean operating time in group 2 was significantly lower compared with group 1 (264.0?±?45.9?min in group 1 vs. 197.5?±?57.7?min in group 2; p?
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Impact of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C on adverse hepatic fibrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma related to betel quid chewing.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related to habitual betel quid (BQ) chewing is unclear. Risk of HCCis increased with adverse hepatic fibrosis. This study aimed to assess the impact of chronic viral hepatitis on adverse hepatic fibrosis in HCC related to BQ chewing. This hospital-based case-control study enrolled 200 pairs of age- and gender-matched patients with HCC and unrelated healthy controls. Serologic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), and surrogate markers for significant hepatic fibrosis were measured. Information on substance-use habits was obtained with a questionnaire. By analysis of surrogate markers for hepatic fibrosis, the prevalence of significant hepatic fibrosis in patients chewing BQ was between 45.8% and 91.7%, whereas that for patients without BQ chewing was between 18.4% and 57.9%. The difference was significant (P <0.05 for each surrogate marker). Multivariate analysis indicated that cirrhosis with Child-Pugh C (odds ratio (OR) = 3.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29- 8.37), thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.92, 95% CI, 1.77-8.68), AFP >400 mg/L (OR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.05-4.66) and male gender (OR = 4.06, 95% CI, 1.29-12.77) were independent factors associated with habitual BQ chewing. In conclusion, adverse hepatic fibrosis and severe liver damage play important roles in the pathogenesis of BQ- related HCC, which could be aggravated by chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. BQ-cessation programs and prevention of chronic HBV/HCV infection are needed to prevent HCC related to BQ chewing.
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Diazirine-containing photoactivatable isoprenoid: synthesis and application in studies with isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Photoaffinity labeling is a useful technique employed to identify protein-ligand and protein-protein noncovalent interactions. Photolabeling experiments have been particularly informative for probing membrane-bound proteins where structural information is difficult to obtain. The most widely used classes of photoactive functionalities include aryl azides, diazocarbonyls, diazirines, and benzophenones. Diazirines are intrinsically smaller than benzophenones and generate carbenes upon photolysis that react with a broader range of amino acid side chains compared with the benzophenone-derived diradical; this makes diazirines potentially more general photoaffinity-labeling agents. In this article, we describe the development and application of a new isoprenoid analogue containing a diazirine moiety that was prepared in six steps and incorporated into an a-factor-derived peptide produced via solid-phase synthesis. In addition to the diazirine moiety, fluorescein and biotin groups were also incorporated into the peptide to aid in the detection and enrichment of photo-cross-linked products. This multifuctional diazirine-containing peptide was a substrate for Ste14p, the yeast homologue of the potential anticancer target Icmt, with K(m) (6.6 ?M) and V(max) (947 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)) values comparable or better than a-factor peptides functionalized with benzophenone-based isoprenoids. Photo-cross-linking experiments demonstrated that the diazirine probe photo-cross-linked to Ste14p with observably higher efficiency than benzophenone-containing a-factor peptides.
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Novel design strategy for checkpoint kinase 2 inhibitors using pharmacophore modeling, combinatorial fusion, and virtual screening.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) has a great effect on DNA-damage and plays an important role in response to DNA double-strand breaks and related lesions. In this study, we will concentrate on Chk2 and the purpose is to find the potential inhibitors by the pharmacophore hypotheses (PhModels), combinatorial fusion, and virtual screening techniques. Applying combinatorial fusion into PhModels and virtual screening techniques is a novel design strategy for drug design. We used combinatorial fusion to analyze the prediction results and then obtained the best correlation coefficient of the testing set (r test) with the value 0.816 by combining the Best(train)Best(test) and Fast(train)Fast(test) prediction results. The potential inhibitors were selected from NCI database by screening according to Best(train)Best(test) + Fast(train)Fast(test) prediction results and molecular docking with CDOCKER docking program. Finally, the selected compounds have high interaction energy between a ligand and a receptor. Through these approaches, 23 potential inhibitors for Chk2 are retrieved for further study.
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Peripheral blood mononuclear cells microRNA predicts treatment outcome of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with induction of microRNAs (miRNAs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We aimed to evaluate the role of PBMC-miRNAs in the treatment outcome to antiviral therapy for HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients.
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ABCA7 gene and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese in Taiwan.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 7 gene (ABCA7) was recently identified as a susceptible gene of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Caucasian population and African Americans. To test its genetic effect in the Han-Chinese population, 536 AD cases and 307 cognitive-intact, elder controls were genotyped for ABCA7 rs3764650 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?2/?3/?4 alleles. Global cognitive performance was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination in both AD patients and controls. For AD patients, comprehensive evaluation of each cognitive domain was further conducted as the following: (1) attention (forward and backward digit span); (2) memory (12-item word recall test); (3) executive function (category verbal fluency); (4) processing speed (Trail making test, part A); and (5) naming task (Boston naming test). ABCA7 rs3764650 was significantly associated with AD and the GG genotype carried a reduced risk for AD (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.0026). The association was further confirmed in 1802 population-based, healthy controls from Taiwan Biobank as a replicate (odds ratio = 0.70, p = 0.032). After adjustment of age, sex, and APOE ?4 allele, rs3764650 remained to be an independent predictor of AD (p = 0.001). The influence of ABCA7 was only evident in individuals without APOE ?4 alleles (p = 0.0004) but absent in ?4 carriers (p = 0.91). None of the cognitive tests was related to ABCA7 rs3764650 genotypes. The minor allele frequency and effect size of rs3764650 disclosed in the Han-Chinese population differed from those reported in the Caucasians and African Americans. Further studies were warranted to elucidate ABCA7's effect among different ethnic groups.
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Between-centre variability in transfer function analysis, a widely used method for linear quantification of the dynamic pressure-flow relation: the CARNet study.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Transfer function analysis (TFA) is a frequently used method to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). However, controversies and variations exist in how research groups utilise TFA, causing high variability in interpretation. The objective of this study was to evaluate between-centre variability in TFA outcome metrics. 15 centres analysed the same 70 BP and CBFV datasets from healthy subjects (n=50 rest; n=20 during hypercapnia); 10 additional datasets were computer-generated. Each centre used their in-house TFA methods; however, certain parameters were specified to reduce a priori between-centre variability. Hypercapnia was used to assess discriminatory performance and synthetic data to evaluate effects of parameter settings. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression. A large non-homogeneous variation was found in TFA outcome metrics between the centres. Logistic regression demonstrated that 11 centres were able to distinguish between normal and impaired CA with an AUC>0.85. Further analysis identified TFA settings that are associated with large variation in outcome measures. These results indicate the need for standardisation of TFA settings in order to reduce between-centre variability and to allow accurate comparison between studies. Suggestions on optimal signal processing methods are proposed.
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Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and periodontal recovery in Taiwanese with periodontitis: a significant relationship.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Plasma levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are different before and after periodontal treatment. Asians and Westerners have significantly different baseline levels of plasma PUFAs. However, no Asian study has reported the effects of nonsurgical treatment on the correlation between periodontal condition and plasma levels of PUFAs. We analyzed whether recovery from periodontitis was correlated with the elevation of plasma fatty acids 3 months after the nonsurgical intervention and with no recommended supplements.
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Baseline gamma-glutamyl transferase levels strongly correlate with hepatocellular carcinoma development in non-cirrhotic patients with successful hepatitis C virus eradication.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis remain at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even after achieving sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of the study was to explore the incidence and risk for HCC among non-cirrhotic patients with an SVR.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease and risk for bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies have shown that chronic inflammation may play a vital role in the pathophysiology of both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bipolar disorder. Among patients with GERD, the risk of bipolar disorder has not been well characterized.
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Polyethylene glycol-coated graphene oxide attenuates antigen-specific IgE production and enhanced antigen-induced T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising nanomaterial for potential application in the versatile field of biomedicine. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been reported to modulate the functionality of immune cells in culture and to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice. Evidence pertaining to the interaction between graphene-based nanomaterials and the immune system in vivo remains scarce. The present study investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol-coated GO (PEG-GO) on antigen-specific immunity in vivo.
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The melanogenesis alteration effects of Achillea millefolium L. essential oil and linalyl acetate: involvement of oxidative stress and the JNK and ERK signaling pathways in melanoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future.
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Profound week 4 interferon responsiveness is mandatory for hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with unfavorable IL-28B genotype.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Viral kinetics and host interleukin 28B (IL-28B) genotype determine treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection.
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Scaffold properties are a key determinant of the size and shape of self-assembled virus-derived particles.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Controlling the geometry of self-assembly will enable a greater diversity of nanoparticles than now available. Viral capsid proteins, one starting point for investigating self-assembly, have evolved to form regular particles. The polyomavirus SV40 assembles from pentameric subunits and can encapsidate anionic cargos. On short ssRNA (?814 nt), SV40 pentamers form 22 nm diameter capsids. On RNA too long to fit a T = 1 particle, pentamers forms strings of 22 nm particles and heterogeneous particles of 29-40 nm diameter. However, on dsDNA SV40 forms 50 nm particles composed of 72 pentamers. A 7.2-Å resolution cryo-EM image reconstruction of 22 nm particles shows that they are built of 12 pentamers arranged with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry. At 3-fold vertices, pentamers each contribute to a three-helix triangle. This geometry of interaction is not seen in crystal structures of T = 7 viruses and provides a structural basis for the smaller capsids. We propose that the heterogeneous particles are actually mosaics formed by combining different geometries of interaction from T = 1 capsids and virions. Assembly can be trapped in novel conformations because SV40 interpentamer contacts are relatively strong. The implication is that by virtue of their large catalog of interactions, SV40 pentamers have the ability to self-assemble on and conform to a broad range of shapes.
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Psychiatric comorbidities in allodynic migraineurs.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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To evaluate the prevalence and the association of psychological disturbance in migraine patients with allodynia.
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Urinary transforming growth factor ? and serum ?-fetoprotein as tumor markers of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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This case-control study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic application of urinary transforming growth factor (TGF) ? and serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TGF? and AFP were determined in 90 pairs of age- and gender-matched patients with cirrhotic HCC and patients with cirrhosis alone and 60 healthy controls. The results indicated that TGF? and AFP levels in patients with HCC were higher than in those with cirrhosis alone or healthy controls (each P?=?0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that TGF? (odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.16) and AFP (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.06) were closely associated, in a dose-related fashion, with the development of HCC. The optimal cutoff values, determined with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, were 29 ?g/g creatinine for TGF? and 100 ng/ml for AFP, respectively. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.74 for TGF? and 0.78 for AFP, respectively. Both biomarkers showed the same sensitivity (52.2 %), high specificity, high positive predictive value, and moderate positive likelihood ratio. Determination of both markers in parallel significantly increased the AUC (0.91) and diagnostic accuracy (92.2 %), with a high sensitivity (86.7 %), specificity (97.8 %), positive predictive value (PPV; 97.5 %), and moderate positive likelihood ratio (PLR; 39.4). Among 31 cirrhotic HCC with AFP???20 ng/ml, the calculated AUC for TGF? was 0.79, with a sensitivity of 64.5 %, specificity of 96.7 %, PPV of 87.0 %, and PLR of 19.5. In conclusion, urinary TGF? and serum AFP are complementary tumor markers for detection of HCC with low AFP production.
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Solution-phase synthesis of single-crystal Cu3Si nanowire arrays on diverse substrates with dual functions as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments provide versatile materials chemistry as well as significantly lower production costs compared to gas-phase synthesis. However, solution-phase synthesis of silicide nanowires remains challenging due to the lack of fundamental understanding of silicidation reactions. In this study, single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized in an organic solvent. Self-catalyzed, dense single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized by thermal decomposition of monophenylsilane in the presence of copper films or copper substrates at 420 to 475 °C and 10.3 MPa in supercritical benzene. The solution-grown Cu3Si nanowire arrays serve dual functions as field emitters and anti-reflective layers, which are reported on copper silicide materials for the first time. Cu3Si nanowires exhibit superior field-emission properties, with a turn-on-voltage as low as 1.16 V ?m(-1), an emission current density of 8 mA cm(-2) at 4.9 V ?m(-1), and a field enhancement factor (?) of 1500. Cu3Si nanowire arrays appear black with optical absorption less than 5% between 400 and 800 nm with minimal reflectance, serving as highly efficient anti-reflective layers. Moreover, the Cu3Si nanowires could be grown on either rigid or flexible substrates (PI). This study shows that solution-phase silicide reactions are adaptable for high-quality silicide nanowire growth and demonstrates their promise towards fabrication of metal silicide-based devices.
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Lung cancer and prognosis in taiwan: a population-based cancer registry.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. This study investigated the prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with lung cancer in Taiwan.
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Electrical spin injection and detection in Mn5Ge3/Ge/Mn5Ge3 nanowire transistors.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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In this Letter, we report the electrical spin injection and detection in Ge nanowire transistors with single-crystalline ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 as source/drain contacts formed by thermal reactions. Degenerate indium dopants were successfully incorporated into as-grown Ge nanowires as p-type doping to alleviate the conductivity mismatch between Ge and Mn5Ge3. The magnetoresistance (MR) of the Mn5Ge3/Ge/Mn5Ge3 nanowire transistor was found to be largely affected by the applied bias. Specifically, negative and hysteretic MR curves were observed under a large current bias in the temperature range from T = 2 K up to T = 50 K, which clearly indicated the electrical spin injection from ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 contacts into Ge nanowires. In addition to the bias effect, the MR amplitude was found to exponentially decay with the Ge nanowire channel length; this fact was explained by the dominated Elliot-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism. The fitting of MR further revealed a spin diffusion length of lsf = 480 ± 13 nm and a spin lifetime exceeding 244 ps at T = 10 K in p-type Ge nanowires, and they showed a weak temperature dependence between 2 and 50 K. Ge nanowires showed a significant enhancement in the measured spin diffusion length and spin lifetime compared with those reported for bulk p-type Ge. Our study of the spin transport in the Mn5Ge3/Ge/Mn5Ge3 nanowire transistor points to a possible realization of spin-based transistors; it may also open up new opportunities to create novel Ge nanowire-based spintronic devices. Furthermore, the simple fabrication process promises a compatible integration into standard Si technology in the future.
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Diabetes knowledge and self-management effects on physiological outcomes in type 2 diabetes.
Nurs Forum
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether Asian Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes who have better knowledge and self-management would have better baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and total cholesterol values. Signicant relationships were found among (a) general diet on HbA1c (p < .030), (b) medications on HbA1c (< .009), and (c) diabetes knowledge on HbA1c (p < .001). Participants with active self-management regimens were expected to demonstrate better laboratory values than those who did not implement self-management. However, persons with knowledge may for other reasons still lack self-management.
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Butyrophilin 3A1 plays an essential role in prenyl pyrophosphate stimulation of human V?2V?2 T cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Most human ?? T cells express V?2V?2 TCRs and play important roles in microbial and tumor immunity. V?2V?2 T cells are stimulated by self- and foreign prenyl pyrophosphate intermediates in isoprenoid synthesis. However, little is known about the molecular basis for this stimulation. We find that a mAb specific for butyrophilin 3 (BTN3)/CD277 Ig superfamily proteins mimics prenyl pyrophosphates. The 20.1 mAb stimulated V?2V?2 T cell clones regardless of their functional phenotype or developmental origin and selectively expanded blood V?2V?2 T cells. The ?? TCR mediates 20.1 mAb stimulation because IL-2 is released by ?(-) Jurkat cells transfected with V?2V?2 TCRs. 20.1 stimulation was not due to isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) accumulation because 20.1 treatment of APC did not increase IPP levels. In addition, stimulation was not inhibited by statin treatment, which blocks IPP production. Importantly, small interfering RNA knockdown of BTN3A1 abolished stimulation by IPP that could be restored by re-expression of BTN3A1 but not by BTN3A2 or BTN3A3. Rhesus monkey and baboon APC presented HMBPP and 20.1 to human V?2V?2 T cells despite amino acid differences in BTN3A1 that localize to its outer surface. This suggests that the conserved inner and/or top surfaces of BTN3A1 interact with its counterreceptor. Although no binding site exists on the BTN3A1 extracellular domains, a model of the intracellular B30.2 domain predicts a basic pocket on its binding surface. However, BTN3A1 did not preferentially bind a photoaffinity prenyl pyrophosphate. Thus, BTN3A1 is required for stimulation by prenyl pyrophosphates but does not bind the intermediates with high affinity.
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Investigating the interaction between heart rate variability and sleep EEG using nonlinear algorithms.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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The multi-mode modulation is a key feature of sleep EEG. And the short-term fractal property reflects the sympathovagal modulation of heart rate variability (HRV). The properties of EEG and HRV strongly correlated with sleep status and are interesting in clinic diagnosis.
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Randomized controlled trials in bariatric surgery.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To fill a void in the literature, we performed a literature search and subsequently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of obesity surgery that were published over the past 40 years. All RCTs published in the English between January 1972 and December 2011 were identified through a literature search using the PubMed database. The following search terms were used: "bariatric surgery", "obesity surgery", and "weight reducing surgery". Studies of basic science and anesthesia-related pain management were excluded. The extracted trials were divided into four groups: comparisons of different interventions, intraoperative surgical techniques, preoperative evaluation, and postoperative care. The literature search produced 753 manuscripts, of which 168 met the eligibility criteria. Among 168 papers, 32 % compared different interventions, 48 % assessed intraoperative surgical techniques, 18 % assessed postoperative care, and the remaining 2 % assessed preoperative evaluation. The RCTs were published in 47 different journals, most commonly in Obesity Surgery (28.6 %) and the Annals of Surgery (11.9 %). Trials were conducted in 25 different countries, with the greatest contribution from the USA (35.1 %). There was a progressive increase in published trials from 1972 to 2011, with 119 RCTs (70.8 %) being published over the last decade. A trend for an increasing number of published RCTs in the field of bariatric surgery was observed over the recent years. Although data from large, adequately powered, long-term RCTs are still lacking, any surgical intervention appears to be more effective than medical care for the treatment of morbid obesity.
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Potential drug-drug interactions in pediatric outpatient prescriptions for newborns and infants.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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To surveyed the quantities, types, and related information of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and estimate the off-label use percentage of pediatric outpatient prescriptions for newborns and infants from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan.
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Incidence and risk factors of chronic daily headache in young adolescents: a school cohort study.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of chronic daily headache (CDH) and its major subtypes in young adolescents.
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Chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with insulin resistance and lipid profiles.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been suggested to be associated with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and lipid profiles. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationships of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profiles with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in Taiwan.
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Bayesian approach of nearfield acoustic reconstruction with particle filters.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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This paper demonstrates that inverse source reconstruction can be performed using a methodology of particle filters that relies primarily on the Bayesian approach of parameter estimation. In particular, the proposed approach is applied in the context of nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method (ESM). A state-space model is formulated in light of the ESM. The parameters to estimate are amplitudes and locations of the equivalent sources. The parameters constitute the state vector which follows a first-order Markov process with the transition matrix being the identity for every frequency-domain data frame. Filtered estimates of the state vector obtained are assigned weights adaptively. The implementation of recursive Bayesian filters involves a sequential Monte Carlo sampling procedure that treats the estimates as point masses with a discrete probability mass function (PMF) which evolves with iteration. The weight update equation governs the evolution of this PMF and depends primarily on the likelihood function and the prior distribution. It is evident from the simulation results that the inclusion of the appropriate prior distribution is crucial in the parameter estimation.
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Individual-level responsiveness of the original and short-form postural assessment scale for stroke patients.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The group-level responsiveness of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) is similar to that of the short-form PASS (SFPASS). This result is counterintuitive because the PASS has more items (12) and response levels (4) than does the SFPASS (5 items and 3 response levels).
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Delphi-based assessment of fall-related risk factors in acute rehabilitation settings according to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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To apply the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model to fall prevention by developing an ICF core set for fall risks in acute rehabilitation settings.
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Massive hemoptysis controlled with transection of a pulmonary vein and bronchus-a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis in which bronchial artery embolization does not control the bleeding is not rare. Traditional surgical intervention is anatomical lung resection. We present a case of a patient with bronchiectasis and massive hemoptysis in which the bleeding was controlled with transection of a pulmonary vein and bronchus with preservation of the pulmonary artery.
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Implementing disability evaluation and welfare services based on the framework of the international classification of functioning, disability and health: experiences in Taiwan.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Before 2007, the disability evaluation was based on the medical model in Taiwan. According to the People with Disabilities Rights Protection Act, from 2012 the assessment of a persons eligibility for disability benefits has to be determined based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework nationwide. The purposes of this study were to: 1) design the evaluation tools for disability eligibility system based on the ICF/ICF-Children and Youth; 2) compare the differences of grades of disability between the old and new evaluation systems; 3) analyse the outcome of the new disability evaluation system.
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The development of Adolescent and Young Adult Participation Sort--Taiwanese version.
Occup Ther Int
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The purpose of this pilot research was to translate the Adolescent and Young Adult Participation Sort into Taiwanese (AYAPS-T), an assessment tool measuring the activity participation and the self-identified barriers of youth transitioning into adulthood. The study included five phases: translation, cultural adaptation, taking photographs, field testing for content validity and pilot testing of test-retest reliability. A literature review, expert review and translation with back-translation were conducted for the initial activities. The activities were then edited on the basis of the feedback of 23 Taiwanese youth for content validity. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91) of the AYAPS-T reported by 22 Taiwanese youth was high. With the activities designed to meet the developmental needs of young adults, the methodology of sorting photographs, the barrier list to identify possible obstacles and some psychometric properties established, the AYAPS-T serves as a reliable and valid tool to identify engagement of young adults in their occupations. Because of the nature of a pilot study, results are limited by a small sample size and limited evidence of psychometric properties. Psychometric properties such as interrater reliability and internal consistency as well as construct validity and concurrent validity need to be tested on a larger sample size.
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Design checkpoint kinase 2 inhibitors by pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening techniques.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Damage to DNA is caused by ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals or collapsed replication forks. When DNA is damaged or cells fail to respond, a mutation that is associated with breast or ovarian cancer may occur. Mammalian cells control and stabilize the genome using a cell cycle checkpoint to prevent damage to DNA or to repair damaged DNA. Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is one of the important kinases, which strongly affects DNA-damage and plays an important role in the response to the breakage of DNA double-strands and related lesions. Therefore, this study concerns Chk2. Its purpose is to find potential inhibitors using the pharmacophore hypotheses (PhModels) and virtual screening techniques. PhModels can identify inhibitors with high biological activities and virtual screening techniques are used to screen the database of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to retrieve compounds that exhibit all of the pharmacophoric features of potential inhibitors with high interaction energy. Ten PhModels were generated using the HypoGen best algorithm. The established PhModel, Hypo01, was evaluated by performing a cost function analysis of its correlation coefficient (r), root mean square deviation (RMSD), cost difference, and configuration cost, with the values 0.955, 1.28, 192.51, and 16.07, respectively. The result of Fischers cross-validation test for the Hypo01 model yielded a 95% confidence level, and the correlation coefficient of the testing set (rtest) had a best value of 0.81. The potential inhibitors were then chosen from the NCI database by Hypo01 model screening and molecular docking using the cdocker docking program. Finally, the selected compounds exhibited the identified pharmacophoric features and had a high interaction energy between the ligand and the receptor. Eighty-three potential inhibitors for Chk2 are retrieved for further study.
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Association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery and low birth weight.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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It has been suggested that periodontal disease is an important risk factor for preterm low birth weight (PLBW). The purpose of this study was to determine the association of maternal periodontitis with low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB).
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Evolution of system for disability assessment based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: A Taiwanese study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The criteria for disability were mainly based on the medical model, and the candidates for disability benefits were identified by physicians mainly depending on their degree of bodily impairment, but without sufficient evaluation of their activity, participation, and environment in Taiwan. According to the People with Disabilities Rights Protection Act, the assessment of a persons eligibility for disability benefits was required to be based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework since July 11, 2012. This study investigated a proposed system to assess patients eligibility for disability in Taiwan, based on the ICF.
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Clinical utility of host genetic IL-28B variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 Asian patients retreated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Host interleukin-28B (IL-28B) genetic variants determine a sustained virological response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) treatment-naïve patients. Its impact on treatment-experienced Asian patients with peginterferon/ribavirin in is to be elucidated.
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Impact of location of epicardial adipose tissue, measured by coronary artery calcium-scoring computed tomography on obstructive coronary artery disease.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. However, whether total EAT volume or location-specific EAT thickness may be a better predictor of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconclusive. We investigated whether the total volume or location-specific thickness of EAT measured on computed tomography (CT) could be a useful marker of CAD on top of clinical risk factors and Agatston score. Two hundred eight consecutive subjects with clinical suspicion of CAD receiving coronary arterial calcium (CAC)-scoring CT and CT coronary angiography were retrospectively divided into 2 groups: an obstructive CAD group (n = 97) and a nonobstructive CAD group (n = 111). Total EAT volume and EAT thicknesses at different locations were measured on CAC-scoring CT. Left atrioventricular groove (AVG) EAT thickness was the sole EAT measurement that showed association with increasing number of vessels exhibiting ?50% stenosis (p for trend <0.001). Logistic regression showed that left AVG EAT thickness was the most important EAT predictor of obstructive CAD (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.29, p = 0.006; optimal threshold ?15 mm, odds ratio 4.62, 95% confidence interval 2.24 to 9.56, p <0.001). Adding left AVG EAT thickness on top of clinical risk factors plus Agatston score improved prediction of obstructive CAD (area under the curve from 0.848 to 0.912, p = 0.002). In conclusion, excessive left AVG EAT adiposity is an important risk factor for obstructive CAD, independent of clinical risk factors and Agatston score. However, further trials are needed in investigation of combined assessment of location-specific EAT thickness and Agatston score on CAC scan as to whether this biomarker could improve CAD risk stratification in the general population.
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