In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (6)

Articles by Amanda K. W. Buck in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52352

Other articles by Amanda K. W. Buck on PubMed

Diffusion-Tensor MRI Based Skeletal Muscle Fiber Tracking

Imaging in Medicine. Nov, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 25429308

A skeletal muscle's function is strongly influenced by the internal organization and geometric properties of its fibers, a property known as muscle architecture. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based fiber tracking provides a powerful tool for non-invasive muscle architecture studies, has three-dimensional sensitivity, and uses a fixed frame of reference. Significant advances have been made in muscle fiber tracking technology, including defining seed points for fiber tracking, quantitatively characterizing muscle architecture, implementing denoising procedures, and testing validity and repeatability. Some examples exist of how these data can be integrated with those from other advanced MRI and computational methods to provide novel insights into muscle function. Perspectives are offered regarding future directions in muscle diffusion-tensor imaging, including needs to develop an improved understanding for the microstructural basis for reduced and anisotropic diffusion, establish the best practices for data acquisition and analysis, and integrate fiber tracking with other physiological data.

Preservation of Biological Function Despite Oxidative Modification of the Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide 4F

Journal of Lipid Research. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22589558

Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorous acid induces changes in HDL function via redox modifications at the level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). As 4F and apoA-I share structural and functional properties, we tested the hypothesis that 4F acts as a reactive substrate for hypochlorous acid (HOCl). 4F reduced the HOCl-mediated oxidation of the fluorescent substrate APF in a concentration-dependent manner (ED(50) ∼ 56 ± 3 μM). This reaction induced changes in the physical properties of 4F. Addition of HOCl to 4F at molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 3:1 reduced 4F band intensity on SDS-PAGE gels and was accompanied by the formation of a higher molecular weight species. Chromatographic studies showed a reduction in 4F peak area with increasing HOCl and the formation of new products. Mass spectral analyses of collected fractions revealed oxidation of the sole tryptophan (Trp) residue in 4F. 4F was equally susceptible to oxidation in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states. To determine whether Trp oxidation influenced its apoA-I mimetic properties, we monitored effects of HOCl on 4F-mediated lipid binding and ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Neither property was altered by HOCl. These results suggest that 4F serves as a reactive substrate for HOCl, an antioxidant response that does not influence the lipid binding and cholesterol effluxing capacities of the peptide.

Multi-parametric MRI Characterization of Healthy Human Thigh Muscles at 3.0 T - Relaxation, Magnetization Transfer, Fat/water, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

NMR in Biomedicine. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25066274

Muscle diseases commonly have clinical presentations of inflammation, fat infiltration, fibrosis, and atrophy. However, the results of existing laboratory tests and clinical presentations are not well correlated. Advanced quantitative MRI techniques may allow the assessment of myo-pathological changes in a sensitive and objective manner. To progress towards this goal, an array of quantitative MRI protocols was implemented for human thigh muscles; their reproducibility was assessed; and the statistical relationships among parameters were determined. These quantitative methods included fat/water imaging, multiple spin-echo T2 imaging (with and without fat signal suppression, FS), selective inversion recovery for T1 and quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging (with and without FS), and diffusion tensor imaging. Data were acquired at 3.0 T from nine healthy subjects. To assess the repeatability of each method, the subjects were re-imaged an average of 35 days later. Pre-testing lifestyle restrictions were applied to standardize physiological conditions across scans. Strong between-day intra-class correlations were observed in all quantitative indices except for the macromolecular-to-free water pool size ratio (PSR) with FS, a metric derived from qMT data. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant between-day differences in the mean values for any parameter estimate. The repeatability was further assessed with Bland-Altman plots, and low repeatability coefficients were obtained for all parameters. Among-muscle differences in the quantitative MRI indices and inter-class correlations among the parameters were identified. There were inverse relationships between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the second eigenvalue, the third eigenvalue, and the standard deviation of the first eigenvector. The FA was positively related to the PSR, while the other diffusion indices were inversely related to the PSR. These findings support the use of these T1 , T2 , fat/water, and DTI protocols for characterizing skeletal muscle using MRI. Moreover, the data support the existence of a common biophysical mechanism, water content, as a source of variation in these parameters.

Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26010830

To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI).

Matching of Postcontraction Perfusion to Oxygen Consumption Across Submaximal Contraction Intensities in Exercising Humans

Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26066829

Studying the magnitude and kinetics of blood flow, oxygen extraction, and oxygen consumption at exercise onset and during the recovery from exercise can lead to insights into both the normal control of metabolism and blood flow and the disturbances to these processes in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the on- and off-kinetics for oxygen delivery, extraction, and consumption as functions of submaximal contraction intensity. Eight healthy subjects performed four 1-min isometric dorsiflexion contractions, with two at 20% MVC and two at 40% MVC. During one contraction at each intensity, relative perfusion changes were measured by using arterial spin labeling, and the deoxyhemoglobin percentage (%HHb) was estimated using the spin- and gradient-echo sequence and a previously published empirical calibration. For the whole group, the mean perfusion did not increase during contraction. The %HHb increased from ∼28 to 38% during contractions of each intensity, with kinetics well described by an exponential function and mean response times (MRTs) of 22.7 and 21.6 s for 20 and 40% MVC, respectively. Following contraction, perfusion increased ∼2.5-fold. The %HHb, oxygen consumption, and perfusion returned to precontraction levels with MRTs of 27.5, 46.4, and 50.0 s, respectively (20% MVC), and 29.2, 75.3, and 86.0 s, respectively (40% MVC). These data demonstrate in human subjects the varied recovery rates of perfusion and oxygen consumption, along with the similar rates of %HHb recovery, across these exercise intensities.

Skeletal Muscle Diffusion Tensor-MRI Fiber Tracking: Rationale, Data Acquisition and Analysis Methods, Applications and Future Directions

NMR in Biomedicine. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27257975

The mechanical functions of muscles involve the generation of force and the actuation of movement by shortening or lengthening under load. These functions are influenced, in part, by the internal arrangement of muscle fibers with respect to the muscle's mechanical line of action. This property is known as muscle architecture. In this review, we describe the use of diffusion tensor (DT)-MRI muscle fiber tracking for the study of muscle architecture. In the first section, the importance of skeletal muscle architecture to function is discussed. In addition, traditional and complementary methods for the assessment of muscle architecture (brightness-mode ultrasound imaging and cadaver analysis) are presented. Next, DT-MRI is introduced and the structural basis for the reduced and anisotropic diffusion of water in muscle is discussed. The third section discusses issues related to the acquisition of skeletal muscle DT-MRI data and presents recommendations for optimal strategies. The fourth section discusses methods for the pre-processing of DT-MRI data, the available approaches for the calculation of the diffusion tensor and the seeding and propagating of fiber tracts, and the analysis of the tracking results to measure structural properties pertinent to muscle biomechanics. Lastly, examples are presented of how DT-MRI fiber tracking has been used to provide new insights into how muscles function, and important future research directions are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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