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Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower Motor neuron disease; Peripheral nervous system diseases; and certain Muscular diseases. Manifestations include Muscle weakness; Fasciculation; muscle Atrophy; Spasm; Myokymia; Muscle hypertonia, myalgias, and Muscle hypotonia.
 JoVE Medicine

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52352

 JoVE Behavior

Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles

1Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52899

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye

1Program in Genetics & Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Toronto, 3Program in Genomics of Differentiation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 4Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Michigan


JoVE 53183

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analyzing Synaptic Modulation of Drosophila melanogaster Photoreceptors after Exposure to Prolonged Light

1Department of Neuroscience of Disease, Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 3Image and Data Analysis Facility, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), 4Graduate School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Titech), 5Dendrite Differentiation, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)


JoVE 55176

 JoVE Neuroscience

Sequential Photo-bleaching to Delineate Single Schwann Cells at the Neuromuscular Junction

1Lehrstuhl für Biomolekulare Sensoren, Technische Universität München, 2Center for Integrated Protein Science (Munich) at the Institute of Neuroscience, Technische Universität München, 3TUM Institute for Advanced Study and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Technische Universität München, 4Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Technische Universität München


JoVE 4460

 JoVE Bioengineering

Measurement of Maximum Isometric Force Generated by Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School


JoVE 52695

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam II

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref

 JoVE Medicine

Phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Tool for Measuring In Vivo Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity in Human Skeletal Muscle

1Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 2Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Human Sciences, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, 5Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 54977

 JoVE Neuroscience

TIRFM and pH-sensitive GFP-probes to Evaluate Neurotransmitter Vesicle Dynamics in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cell Imaging and Data Analysis

1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, 3CEND Center of Excellence in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano


JoVE 52267

 JoVE Medicine

Isolation and Immortalization of Patient-derived Cell Lines from Muscle Biopsy for Disease Modeling

1Department of Cell Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health, 3Division of Pediatric Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital


JoVE 52307

 JoVE In-Press

Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

1Department of Business Economics, Health and Social Care, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, 2University College Physiotherapy "Thim van der Laan", 3Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp

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JoVE 55612

 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital


JoVE 54606

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 JoVE Medicine

Human Vastus Lateralis Skeletal Muscle Biopsy Using the Weil-Blakesley Conchotome

1Academic Geriatric Medicine, University of Southampton, University Hospital Southampton, 2National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Center, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, 3MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, 4National Institute for Health Research Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, 5National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care, 6Newcastle University Institute of Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University


JoVE 53075

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