In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (9)

Articles by Angélica Silva Olivares in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 55095

Other articles by Angélica Silva Olivares on PubMed

Characterization of Naegleria Fowleri Strains Isolated from Human Cases of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in Mexico

Revista De Investigacion Clinica; Organo Del Hospital De Enfermedades De La Nutricion. Sep-Oct, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 18268889

The protozoon Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is a free-living amoeba that produces primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is an acute and frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system. We characterized the strains of N. fowleri isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two cases presented in northwestern Mexico. The strains were isolated and cultured in 2% bactocasitone medium. Enflagellation assays, ultrastructural analysis, protein and protease electrophoresis patterns, and PCR were performed as confirmatory tests. Virulence tests were done using in Balb/c mice. Light microscopy analysis of brain tissue showed amoebae with abundant inflammatory reaction and extensive necrotic and hemorrhagic areas. The enflagellation assay was positive and the electron microscopy showed trophozoites with morphologic features typical of the genus. Protein and protease profiles of the isolated strains were identical to the reference strain. Finally, a 1500-bp PCR product was found in all three strains. Based on all the analyses performed, we concluded that the etiologic agent of both PAM cases was N. fowleri. The need for better epidemiological information and educational programs about basic clinical and pathological aspects of free-living amoebae provided by the health authorities are emphasized.

Differences Between Naegleria Fowleri and Naegleria Gruberi in Expression of Mannose and Fucose Glycoconjugates

Parasitology Research. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20098997

Naegleria fowleri is the etiologic agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rapidly fatal parasitic disease of humans. The adherence of Naegleria trophozoites to the host cell is one of the most important steps in the establishment and invasiveness of this infectious disease. Currently, little is known about the surface molecules that may participate in the interaction of N. fowleri with their target cells. In the present study, we investigated the composition of glycoconjugates present on the surface of trophozoites of the pathogenic N. fowleri and the nonpathogenic Naegleria gruberi. With the use of biotinylated lectins in western blot and flow cytometric analysis, we showed that N. fowleri trophozoites present high levels of surface glycoconjugates that contain alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-glucose, and terminal alpha-L-fucose residues. A significant difference in the expression of these glycoconjugates was observed between N. fowleri and the nonpathogenic N. gruberi. Furthermore, we suggest that glycoconjugates that contain D-mannose and L-fucose residues participate in the adhesion of N. fowleri and subsequent damage to MDCK cells.

Entamoeba Histolytica Calreticulin: an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Expressed by Trophozoites into Experimentally Induced Amoebic Liver Abscesses

Parasitology Research. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20922421

Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

Corifungin, a New Drug Lead Against Naegleria, Identified from a High-throughput Screen

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22869574

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM.

Disruption of MDCK Cell Tight Junctions by the Free-living Amoeba Naegleria Fowleri

Microbiology (Reading, England). Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23258265

Naegleria fowleri is the aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This parasite invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa. However, the mechanism of epithelium penetration is not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of N. fowleri trophozoites and the non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tight junction proteins, including claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1, as well as on the actin cytoskeleton. Trophozoites from each of the free-living amoeba species were co-cultured with MDCK cells in a 1 : 1 ratio for 1, 3, 6 or 10 h. Light microscopy revealed that N. fowleri caused morphological changes as early as 3 h post-infection in an epithelial MDCK monolayer. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that after 10 h of co-culture, N. fowleri trophozoites induced epithelial cell damage, which was characterized by changes in the actin apical ring and disruption of the ZO-1 and claudin-1 proteins but not occludin. Western blot assays revealed gradual degradation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 as early as 3 h post-infection. Likewise, there was a drop in transepithelial electrical resistance that resulted in increased epithelial permeability and facilitated the invasion of N. fowleri trophozoites by a paracellular route. In contrast, N. gruberi did not induce alterations in MDCK cells even at 10 h post-infection. Based on these results, we suggest that N. fowleri trophozoites disrupt epithelial monolayers, which could enable their penetration of the olfactory epithelium and subsequent invasion of the central nervous system.

In Vitro Efficacy of Corifungin Against Acanthamoeba Castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24366747

Painful blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis are caused by the free-living amebae Acanthamoeba spp. Several prescription eye medications are used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis, but the infection can be difficult to control because of recurrence of infection. For the treatment of encephalitis, no single drug was found useful, and in spite of the use of a combination of multiple drugs, the mortality rate remains high. Therefore, efficient, novel drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. In this study, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide, as amebicidal. In vitro, it was effective against both the trophozoites and the cysts. Transmission electron microscopy of Acanthamoeba castellanii incubated with corifungin showed the presence of swollen mitochondria, electron-dense granules, degeneration of cytoplasm architecture, and loss of nuclear chromatin structure. These changes were followed by lysis of amebae. Corifungin also induced the encystment process of A. castellanii. There were alterations in the cyst cell wall followed by lysis of the cysts. Corifungin is a promising therapeutic option for keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis.

Entamoeba Histolytica and E. Dispar Calreticulin: Inhibition of Classical Complement Pathway and Differences in the Level of Expression in Amoebic Liver Abscess

BioMed Research International. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24860808

The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship.

Double Staining of β-galactosidase with Fibrosis and Cancer Markers Reveals the Chronological Appearance of Senescence in Liver Carcinogenesis Induced by Diethylnitrosamine

Toxicology Letters. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26589970

Cellular senescence is characterized by irreversible cell arrest and is associated with the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. Here, we investigated the induction of cellular senescence during liver carcinogenesis. Liver cancer was induced in Fischer 344 rats with a weekly intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (50mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Double-detection of β-galactosidase with Ki67 for cell proliferation; a-SMA and Pdgfrb for cell specificity; p53, p21, p16, and cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4 for senescence-associated molecular pathways and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) for hepatocarcinogenesis was assessed to determine the association of these markers with cellular senescence. DNA damage was measured through senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) detection. Progressive cellular senescence was observed in both fibrotic septa and hepatocytes from week 10 to 18. The maximum peak of positive senescent and fibrotic cells was observed at week 16 and decreased at week 18, but cell proliferation remained high. Whereas the increased p16 expression and SAHF were concomitant with that of β-galactosidase, those of p53 and p21 were barely detected. Furthermore, β-galactosidase positive myofibroblast-like cells were mainly surrounding GGT-positive tumors. Our findings showed that in hepatocarcinogenesis by diethylnitrosamine, cellular senescence is associated with p16 pathway activation and is mainly localized in myofibroblast-like cells.

Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26881044

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD.

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