Articles by Annie K. Schultz in JoVE
Rapid Diagnosis of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds: Use of a Portable rRT-PCR and Freeze-dried Reagents in the Field John Y. Takekawa1, Nichola J. Hill1,2, Annie K. Schultz1, Samuel A. Iverson1, Carol J. Cardona3,4, Walter M. Boyce2, Joseph P. Dudley5 1USGS Western Ecological Research Center, 2Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 5Science Applications International Corporation This study describes diagnosis of avian influenza in wild birds using a portable rRT-PCR system. The method takes advantage of freeze-dried reagents to screen wild birds in a non-laboratory setting, typical of an outbreak scenario. Use of molecular tools provides accurate and sensitive alternatives for rapid diagnosis.
Other articles by Annie K. Schultz on PubMed
Field Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds: Evaluation of a Portable RRT-PCR System and Freeze-dried Reagents Journal of Virological Methods. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20206650 Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of limited local analytical capabilities, difficulties with sample transportation and permitting, or problems keeping samples cold in the field. In response to these challenges, the performance of a portable real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) unit (RAPID((R)), Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employed lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies) was compared to virus isolation combined with real-time RT-PCR conducted in a laboratory. This study included both field- and experimental-based sampling. Field samples were collected from migratory shorebirds captured in northern California, while experimental samples were prepared by spiking fecal material with an H6N2 AIV isolate. Results indicated that the portable rRT-PCR unit had equivalent specificity to virus isolation with no false positives, but sensitivity was compromised at low viral titers. Use of portable rRT-PCR with lyophilized reagents may expedite surveillance results, paving the way to a better understanding of wild bird involvement in HPAIV H5N1 transmission.
Waterfowl Ecology and Avian Influenza in California: Do Host Traits Inform Us About Viral Occurrence? Avian Diseases. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20521673 We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles.