Articles by Chi-yu Fu in JoVE
3D Mitochondrial Ultrastructure of Drosophila Indirect Flight Muscle Revealed by Serial-section Electron Tomography Yi-fan Jiang1, Hsiang-ling Lin2, Chi-yu Fu2 1Graduate Institute of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica In this protocol, we demonstrate the application of serial-section electron tomography to elucidate mitochondrial structure in Drosophila indirect flight muscle.
Other articles by Chi-yu Fu on PubMed
High Throughput Cytotoxicity Screening of Anti-HER2 Immunotoxins Conjugated with Antibody Fragments from Phage-displayed Synthetic Antibody Libraries Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 27550798 Immunotoxins are an important class of antibody-based therapeutics. The potency of the immunotoxins depends on the antibody fragments as the guiding modules targeting designated molecules on cell surfaces. Phage-displayed synthetic antibody scFv libraries provide abundant antibody fragment candidates as targeting modules for the immunoconjugates, but the discovery of optimally functional immunoconjugates is limited by the scFv-payload conjugation procedure. In this work, cytotoxicity screening of non-covalently assembled immunotoxins was developed in high throughput format to discover highly functional synthetic antibody fragments for delivering toxin payloads. The principles governing the efficiency of the antibodies as targeting modules have been elucidated from large volume of cytotoxicity data: (a) epitope and paratope of the antibody-based targeting module are major determinants for the potency of the immunotoxins; (b) immunotoxins with bivalent antibody-based targeting modules are generally superior in cytotoxic potency to those with corresponding monovalent targeting module; and (c) the potency of the immunotoxins is positively correlated with the densities of the cell surface antigen. These findings suggest that screening against the target cells with a large pool of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries without the limitations of natural antibody responses can lead to optimal potency and minimal off-target toxicity of the immunoconjugates.
Electron Tomographic Analysis Reveals Ultrastructural Features of Mitochondrial Cristae Architecture Which Reflect Energetic State and Aging Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 28358017 Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency. This highly interconnected architecture is expected to allow rapid equilibration of membrane potential and biomolecules across integrated regions. In addition, mutant flies with mtDNA replication defect and an accelerated aging phenotype accumulated mitochondria that contained subsections of swirling membrane alongside normal cristae. The swirling membrane had impaired energy production capacity as measured by protein composition and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics were affected in the prematurely aged flies. Interestingly, the normal cristae that remained in the mitochondria with swirling membranes maintained acceptable function that camouflaged them from quality control elimination. Overall, structural features of mitochondrial cristae were described in three-dimension from serial section electron tomographic analysis which reflect energetic state and mtDNA-mediated aging.
Generation and Characterization of Antinonstructural Protein 1 Monoclonal Antibodies and Development of Diagnostics for Dengue Virus Serotype 2 The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. | Pubmed ID: 28749765 Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, where it causes high morbidity and mortality. There is no effective treatment of infection, with supportive care being the only option. Furthermore, early detection and diagnosis are important to facilitate clinical decisions. In this study, seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DENV were generated by hybridoma techniques. These antibodies can be divided into two groups: serotype-specific (DB6-1, DB12-3, and DB38-1) and nonspecific (consisting of antibodies DB16-1, DB20-6, DB29-1, and DB41-2). The B-cell epitopes of DB20-6 and DB29-1 were identified by phage display and site-directed mutagenesis, and its binding motif, WXXWGK, was revealed to correspond to amino acid residues 115-120 of the DENV-2 NS1 protein. A diagnostic platform, consisting of a serotype-specific capture antibody and a complex detection antibody, exhibited a detection limit of about 1 ng/mL, which is sufficient to detect NS1 in clinical serum samples from dengue patients. This diagnostic platform displayed better specificity and sensitivity than two examined commercial NS1 diagnostic platforms. In summary, our results indicate that these newly generated mAbs are suitable for detection of NS1 protein of DENV-2 in clinical samples.