In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Claire Yu in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Fabrication of Extracellular Matrix-derived Foams and Microcarriers as Tissue-specific Cell Culture and Delivery Platforms

1Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, The University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, 4Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario

JoVE 55436

Other articles by Claire Yu on PubMed

Nonlinear Quantum Heat Transfer in Hybrid Structures: Sufficient Conditions for Thermal Rectification

Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19905269

We present a unified description of heat flow in two-terminal hybrid quantum systems. Using simple models, we analytically study nonlinear aspects of heat transfer between various reservoirs--metals, solids, and spin baths--mediated by the excitation and the relaxation of a central (subsystem) mode. We demonstrate rich nonlinear current-temperature characteristics, originating from either the molecular anharmonicity or the reservoir (complex) energy spectra. In particular, we establish sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in two-terminal junctions. We identify two classes of rectifiers. In type- A rectifiers the energy-dependent density of states of the reservoirs are dissimilar. In type- B rectifiers the baths are identical, but include particles whose statistics differ from that of the subsystem, to which they asymmetrically couple. Nonlinear heat flow and specifically thermal rectification are thus ubiquitous effects that could be observed in a variety of systems--phononic, electronic, and photonic.

Theory of Quantum Energy Transfer in Spin Chains: Superexchange and Ballistic Motion

The Journal of Chemical Physics. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22191887

Quantum energy transfer in a chain of two-level (spin) units, connected at its ends to two thermal reservoirs, is analyzed in two limits: (i) in the off-resonance regime, when the characteristic subsystem excitation energy gaps are larger than the reservoirs frequencies, or the baths temperatures are low and (ii) in the resonance regime, when the chain excitation gaps match populated bath modes. In the latter case, the model is studied using a master equation approach, showing that the dynamics is ballistic for the particular chain model explored. In the former case, we analytically study the system dynamics utilizing the recently developed Energy-Transfer Born-Oppenheimer formalism [L.-A. Wu and D. Segal, Phys. Rev. E 83, 051114 (2011)], demonstrating that energy transfers across the chain in a superexchange (bridge assisted tunneling) mechanism, with the energy current decreasing exponentially with distance. This behavior is insensitive to the chain details. Since at low temperatures the excitation spectrum of molecular systems can be truncated to resemble a spin chain model, we argue that the superexchange behavior obtained here should be observed in widespread systems satisfying the off-resonance condition.

Co-delivery of Adipose-derived Stem Cells and Growth Factor-loaded Microspheres in RGD-grafted N-methacrylate Glycol Chitosan Gels for Focal Chondral Repair

Biomacromolecules. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22746668

The coencapsulation of growth factor-loaded microspheres with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within a hydrogel matrix was studied as a potential means to enhance ASC chondrogenesis in the development of a cell-based therapeutic strategy for the regeneration of partial thickness chondral defects. A photopolymerizable N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) was employed to form an in situ gel used to encapsulate microspheres loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) with human ASCs. ASC viability and retention were enhanced when the Young's modulus of the MGC ranged between 225 and 380 kPa. Grafting an RGD-containing peptide onto the MGC backbone (RGD-MGC) improved ASC viability within the gels, remaining at greater than 90% over 14 days in culture. The effects of BMP-6 and TGF-β3 released from the polymer microspheres on ASC chondrogenesis were assessed, and the level of differentiation was compared to ASCs in control gels containing nongrowth factor-loaded microspheres cultured with and without the growth factors supplied in the medium. There was enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers at earlier time points when the ASCs were induced with the sustained and local release of BMP-6 and TGF-β3 from the microspheres. More specifically, the normalized glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II protein expression levels were significantly higher than in the controls. In addition, the ratio of collagen type II to type I was significantly higher in the microsphere delivery group and increased over time. End-point RT-PCR analysis supported that there was a more rapid induction and enhancement of ASC chondrogenesis in the controlled release group. Interestingly, in all of the assays, there was evidence of chondrogenic differentiation when the ASCs were cultured in the gels in the absence of growth factor stimulation. Overall, the co-delivery of growth-factor-loaded microspheres and ASCs in RGD-modified MGC gels successfully induced ASC chondrogenesis and is a promising strategy for cartilage repair.

The Performance of Decellularized Adipose Tissue Microcarriers As an Inductive Substrate for Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

Biomaterials. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22456084

With the aim of developing a clinically-translatable cell expansion and delivery vehicle for adipose tissue engineering, the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was investigated on microcarriers fabricated from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). ASCs seeded on the DAT microcarriers and cultured in adipogenic differentiation medium within a low-shear spinner culture system demonstrated high levels of adipogenic differentiation, as measured by the expression of adipogenic genes, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, and intracellular lipid accumulation. In contrast, gelatin microcarrier controls did not demonstrate significant adipogenesis, emphasizing the role of the native matrix in mediating ASC differentiation. Interestingly, ASCs cultured on the DAT microcarriers in proliferation medium expressed elevated levels of the adipogenic markers, suggesting that the DAT provided an adipo-inductive substrate for the human ASCs. In vivo testing of the DAT and gelatin microcarriers in a subcutaneous Wistar rat model confirmed injectability and demonstrated stable volume retention over 28 days. Under histological analysis, the DAT microcarriers demonstrated no evidence of immunogenicity or cytotoxicity, with the DAT supporting cellular infiltration and tissue remodeling. Pre-seeding the DAT microcarriers with allogenic rat ASCs enhanced cellularity and angiogenesis within the implant region.

Techniques for the Isolation of High-quality RNA from Cells Encapsulated in Chitosan Hydrogels

Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23448167

Extracting high-quality RNA from hydrogels containing polysaccharide components is challenging, as traditional RNA isolation techniques designed for cells and tissues can have limited yields and purity due to physiochemical interactions between the nucleic acids and the biomaterials. In this study, a comparative analysis of several different RNA isolation methods was performed on human adipose-derived stem cells photo-encapsulated within methacrylated glycol chitosan hydrogels. The results demonstrated that RNA isolation methods with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer followed by purification with an RNeasy® mini kit resulted in low yields of RNA, except when the samples were preminced directly within the buffer. In addition, genomic DNA contamination during reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was observed in the hydrogels processed with the CTAB-based methods. Isolation methods using TRIzol® in combination with one of a Qiaex® gel extraction kit, an RNeasy® mini kit, or an extended solvent purification method extracted RNA suitable for gene amplification, with no evidence of genomic contamination. The latter two methods yielded the best results in terms of yield and amplification efficiency. Predigestion of the scaffolds with lysozyme was investigated as a possible means of enhancing RNA extraction from the polysaccharide gels, with no improvements observed in terms of the purity, yield, or amplification efficiency. Overall, this work highlights the application of a TRIzol®+extended solvent purification method for optimizing RNA extraction that can be applied to obtain reliable and accurate gene expression data in studies investigating cells seeded in chitosan-based scaffolds.

Porous Decellularized Adipose Tissue Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

Biomaterials. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23384795

To design tissue-specific bioscaffolds with well-defined properties and 3-D architecture, methods were developed for preparing porous foams from enzyme-solubilized human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). Additionally, a technique was established for fabricating "bead foams" comprised of interconnected networks of porous DAT beads fused through a controlled freeze-thawing and lyophilization procedure. In characterization studies, the foams were stable without the need for chemical crosslinking, with properties that could be tuned by controlling the protein concentration and freezing rate during synthesis. Adipogenic differentiation studies with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) suggested that stiffness influenced ASC adipogenesis on the foams. In support of our previous work with DAT scaffolds and microcarriers, the DAT foams and bead foams strongly supported adipogenesis and were also adipo-inductive, as demonstrated by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, endpoint RT-PCR analysis of adipogenic gene expression, and intracellular lipid accumulation. Adipogenic differentiation was enhanced on the microporous DAT foams, potentially due to increased cell-cell interactions in this group. In vivo assessment in a subcutaneous Wistar rat model demonstrated that the DAT bioscaffolds were well tolerated and integrated into the host tissues, supporting angiogenesis and adipogenesis. The DAT-based foams induced a strong angiogenic response, promoted inflammatory cell migration and gradually resorbed over the course of 12 weeks, demonstrating potential as scaffolds for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration.

Comparison of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells Isolated from Subcutaneous, Omental, and Intrathoracic Adipose Tissue Depots for Regenerative Applications

Stem Cells Translational Medicine. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24361924

Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source.

Decellularized Adipose Tissue Microcarriers As a Dynamic Culture Platform for Human Adipose-derived Stem/stromal Cell Expansion

Biomaterials. Mar, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28038353

With the goal of designing a clinically-relevant expansion strategy for human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), methods were developed to synthesize porous microcarriers derived purely from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). An electrospraying approach was applied to generate spherical DAT microcarriers with an average diameter of 428 ± 41 μm, which were soft, compliant, and stable in long-term culture without chemical crosslinking. Human ASCs demonstrated enhanced proliferation on the DAT microcarriers relative to commercially-sourced Cultispher-S microcarriers within a spinner culture system over 1 month. ASC immunophenotype was maintained post expansion, with a trend for reduced expression of the cell adhesion receptors CD73, CD105, and CD29 under dynamic conditions. Upregulation of the early lineage-specific genes PPARγ, LPL, and COMP was observed in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers, but the cells retained their multilineage differentiation capacity. Comparison of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in 2-D cultures prepared with ASCs pre-expanded on the DAT microcarriers or Cultispher-S microcarriers revealed similar adipogenic and enhanced osteogenic marker expression in the DAT microcarrier group, which had undergone a higher population fold change. Further, histological staining results suggested a more homogeneous differentiation response in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers as compared to either Cultispher-S microcarriers or tissue culture polystyrene. A pilot chondrogenesis study revealed higher levels of chondrogenic gene and protein expression in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers relative to all other groups, including the baseline controls. Overall, this study demonstrates the promise of applying dynamic culture with tissue-specific DAT microcarriers as a means of deriving regenerative cell populations.

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