Articles by Doron Cohn Yakubovich in JoVE
Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts Doron Cohn Yakubovich1, Wafa Tawackoli2,3,4, Dmitriy Sheyn2,3, Ilan Kallai1, Xiaoyu Da4, Gadi Pelled1,2,3,4, Dan Gazit1,2,3,4, Zulma Gazit1,2,3 1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Implantation of autologous and allogeneic bone grafts constitute accepted approaches to treat major craniofacial bone loss. Yet the effect of graft composition on the interplay among neovascularization, cell differentiation and bone formation is unclear. We present a multimodal imaging protocol aimed to elucidate the angiogenesis-osteogenesis interdependence at the graft proximity.
Other articles by Doron Cohn Yakubovich on PubMed
Gene-modified Adult Stem Cells Regenerate Vertebral Bone Defect in a Rat Model Molecular Pharmaceutics. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21834548 Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), the most common fragility fractures, account for approximately 700,000 injuries per year. Since open surgery involves morbidity and implant failure in the osteoporotic patient population, a new minimally invasive biological solution to vertebral bone repair is needed. Previously, we showed that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) overexpressing a BMP gene are capable of inducing spinal fusion in vivo. We hypothesized that a direct injection of ASCs, designed to transiently overexpress rhBMP6, into a vertebral bone void defect would accelerate bone regeneration. Porcine ASCs were isolated and labeled with lentiviral vectors that encode for the reporter gene luciferase (Luc) under constitutive (ubiquitin) or inductive (osteocalcin) promoters. The ASCs were first labeled with reporter genes and then nucleofected with an rhBMP6-encoding plasmid. Twenty-four hours later, bone void defects were created in the coccygeal vertebrae of nude rats. The ASC-BMP6 cells were suspended in fibrin gel (FG) and injected into the bone void. A control group was injected with FG alone. The regenerative process was monitored in vivo using microCT, and cell survival and differentiation were monitored using tissue specific reporter genes and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The surgically treated vertebrae were harvested after 12 weeks and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical (against porcine vimentin) analyses. In vivo BLI detected Luc-expressing cells at the implantation site over a 12-week period. Beginning 2 weeks postoperatively, considerable defect repair was observed in the group treated with ASC-BMP6 cells. The rate of bone formation in the stem cell-treated group was two times faster than that in the FG-treated group, and bone volume at the end point was 2-fold compared to the control group. Twelve weeks after cell injection the bone volume within the void reached the volume measured in native vertebrae. Immunostaining against porcine vimentin indicated that the ASC-BMP6 cells contributed to new bone formation. Here we show the potential of injections of BMP-modified ASCs to repair vertebral bone defects in a rat model. Our results could pave the way to a novel approach for the biological treatment of traumatic and osteoporosis-related vertebral bone injuries.
PTH Promotes Allograft Integration in a Calvarial Bone Defect Molecular Pharmaceutics. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24131143 Allografts may be useful in craniofacial bone repair, although they often fail to integrate with the host bone. We hypothesized that intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) would enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and differentiation, resulting in allograft osseointegration in cranial membranous bones. Calvarial bone defects were created in transgenic mice, in which luciferase is expressed under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. The mice were given implants of allografts with or without daily PTH treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to monitor host osteprogenitor differentiation at the implantation site. Bone formation was evaluated with the aid of fluorescence imaging (FLI) and microcomputed tomography (μCT) as well as histological analyses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expression of key osteogenic and angiogenic genes. Osteoprogenitor differentiation, as detected by BLI, in mice treated with an allograft implant and PTH was over 2-fold higher than those in mice treated with an allograft implant without PTH. FLI also demonstrated that the bone mineralization process in PTH-treated allografts was significantly higher than that in untreated allografts. The μCT scans revealed a significant increase in bone formation in allograft + PTH treated mice comparing to allograft + PBS treated mice. The osteogenic genes osteocalcin (Oc/Bglap) and integrin binding sialoprotein (Ibsp) were upregulated in the allograft + PTH treated animals. In summary, PTH treatment enhances osteoprogenitor differentiation and augments bone formation around structural allografts. The precise mechanism is not clear, but we show that infiltration pattern of mast cells, associated with the formation of fibrotic tissue, in the defect site is significantly affected by the PTH treatment.