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Articles by Eduardo J. Carrera in JoVE
Receptor Autoradiography Protocol for the Localized Visualization of Angiotensin II Receptors Andrea Linares1, Leena E. Couling2, Eduardo J. Carrera3, Robert C. Speth2 1Farquhar College of Arts and Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, 3School of Medicine, University of Colorado Here we present a protocol to describe the localization of angiotensin II Type 1 receptors in the rat brain by quantitative, densitometric, in vitro receptor autoradiography using an iodine-125 labeled analog of angiotensin II.
Other articles by Eduardo J. Carrera on PubMed
Increased Expression of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptors in the Solitary-vagal Complex Blunts Renovascular Hypertension Hypertension. Oct, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24958505 Angiotensin II increases and decreases arterial pressure by acting at angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors, respectively. Renovascular hypertensive rats exhibit a high level of activity of the peripheral and central renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of increasing the expression of angiotensin type 2 receptors in the solitary-vagal complex (nucleus of the solitary tract/dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus), a key brain stem region for cardiovascular regulation, on the development of renovascular hypertension. Holtzman normotensive rats were implanted with a silver clip around the left renal artery to induce 2-kidney 1-clip renovascular hypertension. Three weeks later, rats were microinjected in the solitary-vagal complex with either an adenoassociated virus to increase the expression of angiotensin type 2 receptors or with a control vector. We observed that increasing angiotensin type 2 receptor expression in the solitary-vagal complex attenuated the development of renovascular hypertension and also reversed the impairment of the baroreflex and the increase in the low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure observed in renovascular hypertensive rats. Furthermore, an observed decrease in mRNA levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the solitary-vagal complex of renovascular hypertensive rats was restored to control levels after viral-mediated increases in angiotensin type 2 receptors at this site. Collectively, these data demonstrate specific and beneficial effects of angiotensin type 2 receptors via the brain of hypertensive rats and suggest that central angiotensin type 2 receptors may be a potential target for therapeutics in renovascular hypertension.
Acute Repeated Intracerebroventricular Injections of Angiotensin II Reduce Agonist and Antagonist Radioligand Binding in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus and Median Preoptic Nucleus in the Rat Brain Brain Research. Oct, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25108041 Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates water and saline intakes when injected into the brain of rats. This arises from activation of the AT1 Ang II receptor subtype. Acute repeated injections, however, decrease the water intake response to Ang II without affecting saline intake. Previous studies provide evidence that Ang II-induced water intake is mediated via the classical G protein coupling pathway, whereas the saline intake caused by Ang II is mediated by an ERK 1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway. Accordingly, the different behavioral response to repeated injections of Ang II may reflect a selective effect on G protein coupling. To test this hypothesis, we examined the binding of a radiolabeled agonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1) Ang II) and a radiolabeled antagonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1), isoleucine(8) Ang II) in brain homogenates and tissue sections prepared from rats given repeated injections of Ang II or vehicle. Although no treatment-related differences were found in hypothalamic homogenates, a focus on specific brain structures using receptor autoradiography, found that the desensitization treatment reduced binding of both radioligands in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), but not in the subfornical organ (SFO). Because G protein coupling is reported to have a selective effect on agonist binding without affecting antagonist binding, these findings do not support a G protein uncoupling treatment effect. This suggests that receptor number is more critical to the water intake response than the saline intake response, or that pathways downstream from the G protein mediate desensitization of the water intake response.
Distribution of Non-AT1, Non-AT2 Binding of 125I-sarcosine1, Isoleucine8 Angiotensin II in Neurolysin Knockout Mouse Brains PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25147932 The recent identification of a novel binding site for angiotensin (Ang) II as the peptidase neurolysin (E.C. 184.108.40.206) has implications for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This report describes the distribution of specific binding of 125I-Sarcosine1, Isoleucine8 Ang II (125I-SI Ang II) in neurolysin knockout mouse brains compared to wild-type mouse brains using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the presence of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB), which unmasks the novel binding site, widespread distribution of specific (3 µM Ang II displaceable) 125I-SI Ang II binding in 32 mouse brain regions was observed. Highest levels of binding >700 fmol/g initial wet weight were seen in hypothalamic, thalamic and septal regions, while the lowest level of binding