Articles by Eva Mueller in JoVE
Fabricating Degradable Thermoresponsive Hydrogels on Multiple Length Scales via Reactive Extrusion, Microfluidics, Self-assembly, and Electrospinning Daryl Sivakumaran1, Emilia Bakaic1, Scott B. Campbell1, Fei Xu1, Eva Mueller1, Todd Hoare1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University Protocols are described for the fabrication of degradable thermoresponsive hydrogels based on hydrazone cross-linking of polymeric oligomers on the bulk scale, microscale, and nanoscale, the latter for preparation of both gel nanoparticles and nanofibers.
Other articles by Eva Mueller on PubMed
Temperature-Induced Assembly of Monodisperse, Covalently Cross-Linked, and Degradable Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Microgels Based on Oligomeric Precursors Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. | Pubmed ID: 25977976 A simple, rapid, solvent-free, and scalable thermally driven self-assembly approach is described to produce monodisperse, covalently cross-linked, and degradable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels based on mixing hydrazide (PNIPAM-Hzd) and aldehyde (PNIPAM-Ald) functionalized PNIPAM precursors. Preheating of a seed PNIPAM-Hzd solution above its phase transition temperature produces nanoaggregates that are subsequently stabilized and cross-linked by the addition of PNIPAM-Ald. The ratio of PNIPAM-Hzd:PNIPAM-Ald used to prepare the microgels, the time between PNIPAM-Ald addition and cooling, the temperature to which the PNIPAM-Hzd polymer solution is preheated, and the concentration of PNIPAM-Hzd in the initial seed solution can all be used to control the size of the resulting microgels. The microgels exhibit similar thermal phase transition behavior to conventional precipitation-based microgels but are fully degradable into oligomeric precursor polymers. The microgels can also be lyophilized and redispersed without any change in colloidal stability or particle size and exhibit no significant cytotoxicity in vitro. We anticipate that microgels fabricated using this approach may facilitate translation of the attractive properties of such microgels in vivo without the concerns regarding microgel clearance that exist with other PNIPAM-based microgels.
Microfluidic Production of Degradable Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based Microgels Soft Matter. | Pubmed ID: 29177347 Highly monodisperse and hydrolytically degradable thermoresponsive microgels on the tens-to-hundreds of micron size scale have been fabricated based on simultaneous on-chip mixing and emulsification of aldehyde and hydrazide-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) precursor polymers. The microfluidic chip can run for extended periods without upstream gelation and can produce monodisperse (
Dynamically Cross-Linked Self-Assembled Thermoresponsive Microgels with Homogeneous Internal Structures Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. | Pubmed ID: 29261314 The internal morphology of temperature-responsive degradable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels formed via an aqueous self-assembly process based on hydrazide and aldehyde-functionalized PNIPAM oligomers is investigated. A combination of surface force measurements, small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and ultrasmall angle neutron scattering (USANS) was used to demonstrate that the self-assembled microgels have a homogeneously cross-linked internal structure. This result is surprising given the sequential addition process used to fabricate the microgels, which was expected to result in a densely cross-linked shell-diffuse core structure. The homogeneous internal structure identified is also significantly different than conventional microgels prepared via precipitation polymerization, which typically exhibit a diffuse shell-dense core structure. The homogeneous structure is hypothesized to result from the dynamic nature of the hydrazone cross-linking chemistry used to couple with the assembly conditions chosen that promote polymer interdiffusion. The lack of an internal cross-linking gradient within these degradable and monodisperse microgels is expected to facilitate more consistent drug release over time, improved optical properties, and other potential application benefits.