In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular Biology and Evolution
- Bioconjugate Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- DNA Research : an International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Articles by Guy Oriol in JoVE
Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer Philippe Pérot1,2, Valérie Cheynet1,2, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci1,3,4, Guy Oriol1,2, Nathalie Mugnier5, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse1,4,6, Alain Ruffion1,4,7, François Mallet1,2 1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), which occupy 8% of the human genome, retain scarce coding capacities but a hundred thousand long terminal repeats (LTRs). A custom Affymetrix microarray was designed to identify individual HERV locus expression and was used on prostate cancer tissues as a proof of concept for future clinical studies.
Other articles by Guy Oriol on PubMed
Versatile Method for Production and Controlled Polymer-immobilization of Biologically Active Recombinant Proteins Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12226867 The immobilization of a protein by covalent attachment to a support matrix should involve only functional groups of the protein that are not essential for its biological activity. A general strategy for obtaining recombinant proteins designed for oriented covalent grafting onto copolymers was investigated. The rationale involves the definition of seven p24-derived recombinant proteins as fused to either distant or adjacent tags comprising primary amine rich tag consisting of six contiguous lysines suitable for oriented covalent immobilization and a hexa-histidine tag suitable for metal chelate affinity purification. High-level expression, efficient affinity purification, and coupling yields onto maleic anhydride-alt-methyl vinyl ether copolymers higher than 95% were obtained for all proteins. Afterwards, an investigation of the biological features of the immobilized vs. nonimmobilized protein onto the copolymer allowed us to select one bioconjugate which was used in a diagnostic context, i.e., as a capture antigen in an ELISA format test. Sera from 107 HIV-seropositive individuals at various stages of HIV infection, including two seroconversion panels and 104 healthy HIV-seronegative controls, were tested using either RH24 or RK24H-copolymer coated onto the microtiter plate. These assays showed that the use of such a protein-copolymer bioconjugate allowed detection of lower antibody titers than the RH24 protein, illustrating the potential of applications of such doubly tagged proteins. Thus, a set of expression vectors was designed containing four different combinations of hexa-lysine and hexa-histidine tags and a multiple cloning site, allowing the production of different recombinant fusion proteins suitable for biological reactivity conservation after immobilization.
A Retroviral Promoter and a Cellular Enhancer Define a Bipartite Element Which Controls Env ERVWE1 Placental Expression Journal of Virology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15507602 The HERV-W family contains hundreds of loci diversely expressed in several physiological and pathological contexts. A unique locus termed ERVWE1 encodes an envelope glycoprotein (syncytin) involved in hominoid placental physiology. Here we show that syncytin expression is regulated by a bipartite element consisting of a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible long terminal repeat (LTR) retroviral promoter adjacent to a cellular enhancer conferring a high level of expression and placental tropism. Deletion mutant analysis showed that the ERVWE1 5' LTR contains binding sites essential for basal placental activity in the region from positions +1 to +125. The region from positions +125 to +310 represents a cAMP-responsive core HERV-W promoter active in all cell types. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis highlighted the complexity of U3 regulation. ERVWE1 placenta-specific positive (e.g., T240) and negative (e.g., G71) regulatory sites were identified, as were essential sites required for basic activity (e.g., A247). The flanking sequences of the ERVWE1 provirus contain several putative regulatory elements. The upstream HERV-H and HERV-P LTRs were found to be inactive. Conversely, the 436-bp region located between the HERV-P LTR and ERVWE1 was shown to be an upstream regulatory element (URE) which is significantly active in placenta cells. This URE acts as a tissue-specific enhancer. Genetic and functional analyses of hominoid UREs revealed large differences between UREs of members of the Hominidae and the Hylobatidae. These data allowed the identification of a positive regulatory region from positions -436 to -128, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon negative regulatory region from positions -128 to -67, and a trophoblast-specific enhancer (TSE) from positions -67 to -35. Putative AP-2, Sp-1, and GCMa binding sites are essential constituents of the 33-bp TSE.
Evidence of Selection on the Domesticated ERVWE1 Env Retroviral Element Involved in Placentation Molecular Biology and Evolution. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15254254 The human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, which contains gag and pol pseudogenes and has retained a full-length envelope open reading frame (ORF). This Env protein (syncytin) is a highly fusogenic membrane glycoprotein and has been proposed to be involved in hominoid placental physiology. To track the hallmarks of natural selection acting on the ERVWE1 env gene, the pattern of substitutions and indels was analyzed within all human HERV-W elements and along the ERVWE1 orthologous loci in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. The comparison of ERVWE1 and paralogous HERV-W copies revealed an ERVWE1-specific signature consisting of a four amino acid deletion in the intracytoplasmic tail of the glycoprotein. We show that this deletion is crucial for the envelope fusogenic activity. The comparison of the human ERVWE1 locus with its orthologs demonstrates the existence of a selective pressure to maintain the env reading frame open. Notably, the 3' part of the env gene, encoding regions required for the fusion process, is under purifying selection. The identification of selective constraints on env ERVWE1 confirms that this retroviral locus has been recruited in the hominoid lineage to become a bona fide gene.
Antigenicity of Recombinant Proteins After Regioselective Immobilization Onto Polyanhydride-based Copolymers Bioconjugate Chemistry. May-Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15149172 We previously demonstrated that the introduction of a tag consisting of several contiguous lysines at the N- or C-terminus of a recombinant protein greatly improved the covalent grafting of the protein onto negatively charged maleic anhydride-alt-methyl vinyl ether (MAMVE) copolymer, under many different experimental conditions (Ladavière, C., et al. (1998) Bioconjugate Chem. 9, 655; Allard, L., et al. (2002) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 80, 341). The grafting efficiency was dependent on the charge and amine density of the tag, characteristics which were determined by the tag composition. The six lysine tag (Lys6) was found to be the most efficient (Allard, L., et al. (2001) Bioconjugate Chem. 12, 972). In the present work, the biological activity of Lys6-proteins covalently bound to polymer was investigated. N- or C-terminal Lys6-tagged HIV-1 p24 recombinant proteins (RK24H and RH24K) were grafted onto MAMVE, and the antigenicity each of the bioconjugates was evaluated using six monoclonal antibodies that recognized different epitopes distributed along the protein. We demonstrate that the position of the tag and the hydrolysis rate of the anhydride moieties of the polymer are the two main parameters involved in the conservation of the biological activity of the immobilized protein. We thus present a process which allows an efficient oriented immobilization of proteins onto copolymers with optimal biological activity that is suitable for the controlled production of active bioconjugates.
The Endogenous Retroviral Locus ERVWE1 is a Bona Fide Gene Involved in Hominoid Placental Physiology Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14757826 The definitive demonstration of a role for a recently acquired gene is a difficult task, requiring exhaustive genetic investigations and functional analysis. The situation is indeed much more complicated when facing multicopy gene families, because most or portions of the gene are conserved among the hundred copies of the family. This is the case for the ERVWE1 locus of the human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W), which encodes an envelope glycoprotein (syncytin) likely involved in trophoblast differentiation. Here we describe, in 155 individuals, the positional conservation of this locus and the preservation of the envelope ORF. Sequencing of the critical elements of the ERVWE1 provirus showed a striking conservation among the 48 alleles of 24 individuals, including the LTR elements involved in the transcriptional machinery, the splice sites involved in the maturation of subgenomic Env mRNA, and the Env ORF. The functionality and tissue specificity of the 5' LTR were demonstrated, as well as the fusogenic activity of the envelope polymorphic variants. Such functions were also shown to be preserved in the orthologous loci isolated from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. This functional preservation among humans and during evolution strongly argued for the involvement of this recently acquired retroviral envelope glycoprotein in hominoid placental physiology.
Natural History of the ERVWE1 Endogenous Retroviral Locus Retrovirology. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16176588 The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure. The encoded Env protein (Syncytin) is involved in hominoid placental physiology.
Identification of the HASCT2-binding Domain of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin-1 Fusogenic Glycoprotein Retrovirology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16820059 The cellular HERV-W envelope/syncytin-1 protein, encoded by the envelope gene of the ERVWE1 proviral locus is a fusogenic glycoprotein probably involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer. Syncytin-1-induced in vitro cell-cell fusion is dependent on the interaction with hASCT2. As no receptor binding domain has been clearly defined in the SU of neither the HERV-W Env nor the retroviruses of the same interference group, we designed an in vitro binding assay to evaluate the interaction of the HERV-W envelope with the hASCT2 receptor. Using truncated HERV-W SU subunits, a region consisting of the N-terminal 124 amino acids of the mature SU glycoprotein was determined as the minimal receptor-binding domain. This domain contains several sub-domains which are poorly conserved among retroviruses of this interference group but a region of 18 residus containing the SDGGGX2DX2R conserved motif was proved to be essential for syncytin-1-hASCT2 interaction.
Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues DNA Research : an International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561344 Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5'LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5'LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs.