In JoVE (1)
Articles by Insaf Salem Fourati in JoVE
Development of an IFN-γ ELISpot Assay to Assess Varicella-Zoster Virus-specific Cell-mediated Immunity Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Insaf Salem Fourati1, Anne-Julie Grenier1, Élyse Jolette1, Natacha Merindol1, Philippe Ovetchkine2,3, Hugo Soudeyns1,3 1Unité d'Immunopathologie Virale, Centre de Recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine, Department of Microbiology, Infectiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 2Infectious Diseases Service, CHU Sainte-Justine, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3Department of Paediatrics, Université de Montréal Novel generations of functional assays such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISpot, which detect cytokine production at the single cell level and provide both quantitative and qualitative characterization of T cell responses can be used to assess cell-mediated immune responses directed against varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Other articles by Insaf Salem Fourati on PubMed
Reconstitution of Protective Immune Responses Against Cytomegalovirus and Varicella Zoster Virus Does Not Require Disease Development in Pediatric Recipients of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nov, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23034171 CMV and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, the kinetics of reconstitution and protective potential of antiviral cell-mediated immune responses following UCBT remain poorly characterized. In this study, the reconstitution of CMV- and VZV-specific T cell responses was assessed using IFN-γ ELISPOT in 28 children who underwent UCBT to treat hematological or inherited disorders. Barely detectable in the first 3 mo posttransplantation, CMV- and VZV-specific T cell responses were observed in 30.4% and 40.3% of study subjects after 36 mo of follow-up. Four of five CMV-seropositive subjects developed detectable levels of circulating CMV DNA (DNAemia), and 5 of 17 VZV-seropositive patients experienced herpes zoster during the posttransplant period. Four CMV-seronegative subjects developed IFN-γ responses against CMV, and four subjects developed a VZV-specific IFN-γ response without clinical signs of infection. No CMV- or VZV-related events were observed in study subjects following the development of CMV- or VZV-specific responses > 150 spot-forming units/10(6) PBMCs, consistent with T cell-mediated protection. Finally, famciclovir prophylaxis did not strictly prevent the reconstitution of the VZV-specific T cell repertoire, because the frequency of T cells producing IFN-γ in response to VZV Ags reached levels consistent with protection in two nonzoster subjects. Monitoring of CMV- and VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity could inform immunocompetence and guide the initiation and cessation of antiherpetic prophylaxis in UCBT recipients.
Rejection of Leukemic Cells Requires Antigen-specific T Cells with High Functional Avidity Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Jan, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24161924 In a context where injection of antigen (Ag)-specific T cells probably represents the future of leukemia immunotherapy, identification of optimal target Ags is crucial. We therefore sought to discover a reliable marker for selection of the most potent Ags. To this end, (1) we immunized mice against 8 individual Ags: 4 minor histocompatibility Ags (miHAs) and 4 leukemia-associated Ags (LAAs) that were overexpressed on leukemic relative to normal thymocytes; (2) we assessed their ability to reject EL4 leukemic cells; and (3) we correlated the properties of our Ags (and their cognate T cells) with their ability to induce protective antileukemic responses. Overall, individual miHAs instigated more potent antileukemic responses than LAAs. Three features had no influence on the ability of primed T cells to reject leukemic cells: (1) MHC-peptide affinity; (2) the stability of MHC-peptide complexes; and (3) epitope density at the surface of leukemic cells, as assessed using mass spectrometry. The cardinal feature of successful Ags is that they were recognized by high-avidity CD8 T cells that proliferated extensively in vivo. Our work suggests that in vitro evaluation of functional avidity represents the best criterion for selection of Ags, which should be prioritized in clinical trials of leukemia immunotherapy.