Articles by Kevin Brandt in JoVE
Saliva, Salivary Gland, and Hemolymph Collection from Ixodes scapularis Ticks Toni G. Patton1, Gabrielle Dietrich2, Kevin Brandt1, Marc C. Dolan2, Joseph Piesman2, Robert D. Gilmore Jr.1 1Microbiology and Pathogenesis Activity, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2Tick-Borne Diseases Activity, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The collection of infected tick hemolymph, salivary glands, and saliva is important to study how tick-borne pathogens cause disease. In this protocol we demonstrate how to collect hemolymph and salivary glands from feeding Ixodes scapularis nymphs. We also demonstrate saliva collection from female I. scapularis adults.
Other articles by Kevin Brandt on PubMed
Cloning, Partial Purification and in Vivo Developmental Profile of Expression of the Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase of Ctenocephalides Felis Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12125060 cDNAs encoding two different epoxide hydrolases (nCfEH1 and nCfEH2) were cloned from a cDNA library prepared from the wandering larval stage of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. Predicted translations of the open reading frames indicated the clones encoded proteins of 464 (CfEH1) and 465 (CfEH2) amino acids. These proteins have a predicted molecular weight of 53 kDa and a putative 22 amino acid N-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. The amino acid sequences are 77% identical, and both are homologous to previously isolated epoxide hydrolases from Manduca sexta, Trichoplusia ni, and Rattus norvegicus. Purification of native juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) from unfed adult cat fleas generated a partially pure protein that hydrolyzed juvenile hormone III to juvenile hormone III-diol. The amino terminal sequence of this;50-kDa protein is identical to the deduced amino terminus of the protein encoded by the nCfEH1 clone. Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against Escherichia coli-expressed HisCfEH1 recognized a approximately 50-kDa protein present in the partially purified fraction containing JHEH activity. Immunohistochemistry experiments using the same affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies localized the epoxide hydrolase in developing oocytes, fat body, and midgut epithelium of the adult flea. The presence of JHEH in various flea life stages and tissues was assessed by Northern blot and enzymatic activity assays. JHEH mRNA expression remained relatively constant throughout the different flea larval stages and was slightly elevated in the unfed adult flea. JHEH enzymatic activity was highest in the late larval, pupal, and adult stages. In all stages and tissues examined, JHEH activity was significantly lower than juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity, the other enzyme responsible for JH catalysis.
Evaluation of a Recombinant Salivary Gland Protein (thrombostasin) As a Vaccine Candidate to Disrupt Blood-feeding by Horn Flies Vaccine. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15149788 The potential for controlling blood-feeding by the cattle pest, Haematobia irritans irritans (horn fly), was tested by vaccination against thrombostasin (TS), an inhibitor of mammalian thrombin that is released into skin during horn fly blood-feeding. The increase in blood meal size that occurred for flies feeding on sensitized non-vaccinated hosts was blocked and egg development in female flies was delayed when horn flies fed on rabbits and cattle immunized with recombinant TS. This demonstration of the impact of disrupting TS action by vaccination provides a novel approach toward control of this veterinary pest and offers a paradigm for limiting blood-feeding in other medically-important insect species.
Comparison of Disseminated and Nondisseminated Strains of Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in Mice Naturally Infected by Tick Bite Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15322021 Clinical isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto have been categorized into disseminated and nondisseminated groups based on distinct ribosomal spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism genotypes (RSTs). In order to determine whether transmission by tick bite would alter the dissemination dynamics and disease produced by distinct genotypes, disseminated isolates (RST1), nondisseminated isolates (RST3), and a standard laboratory strain (B-31) were established in a murine cycle utilizing infections transmitted by ticks. B-31 spirochetes circulated in the blood of inbred C3H/HeJ mice longer than in the blood of outbred mice. The majority of C3H mice exposed to RST1-infected ticks contained cultivable spirochetes in their blood for up to 17 days; in contrast, mice exposed to RST3 isolates demonstrated a precipitous decline in infection after day 7 postexposure. A quantitative PCR (q-PCR) assay demonstrated that the densities of spirochetes in blood were similar for the RST1 and RST3 isolates, except during the 2nd week postexposure, when the RST1 isolates displayed a markedly higher density in blood. Spirochete load in the heart and bladder of infected mice was measured by q-PCR at 8 weeks postexposure; the numbers of spirochetes in these tissues were similar for mice infected with either disseminated or nondisseminated strains. Similarly, histopathology samples of heart, bladder, and joint tissue obtained at 8 weeks postexposure did not reveal greater pathology in mice infected with the disseminated isolates. We conclude that although the spirochetemia induced by tick-transmitted disseminated isolates was more intense and of longer duration than that induced by nondisseminated isolates, the resultant pathologies produced by these strains were ultimately similar.