In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Lara Eid in JoVE

Other articles by Lara Eid on PubMed

Quantitative and Ultrastructural Study of Serotonin Innervation of the Globus Pallidus in Squirrel Monkeys

The European Journal of Neuroscience. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23432025

The present immunohistochemical study was aimed at characterizing the serotonin (5-HT) innervation of the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) pallidal segments in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) with an antibody against the 5-HT transporter (SERT). At the light microscopic level, unbiased counts of SERT+ axon varicosities showed that the density of innervation is similar in the GPi (0.57 ± 0.03 × 10(6)  varicosities/mm(3) of tissue) and the GPe (0.60 ± 0.04 × 10(6) ), with the anterior half of both segments being more densely innervated than the posterior half. Dorsoventral and mediolateral decreasing gradients of SERT varicosities occur in both pallidal segments, but are statistically significant only in the GPi. The neuronal density being significantly greater in the GPe (3.41 ± 0.23 × 10(3)  neurons/mm(3) ) than in the GPi (2.90 ± 0.11 × 103), the number of 5-HT axon varicosities per pallidal neuron was found to be superior in the GPi (201 ± 27) than in the GPe (156 ± 26). At the electron microscopic level, SERT+ axon varicosities are comparable in size and vesicular content in GPi and GPe, where they establish mainly asynaptic contacts with unlabeled profiles. Less than 25% of SERT+ varicosities display a synaptic specialization, which is of the symmetrical or asymmetrical type and occurs exclusively on pallidal dendrites. No SERT+ axo-axonic synapses are present, suggesting that 5-HT exerts its well-established modulatory action upon various pallidal afferents mainly through diffuse transmission, whereas its direct control of pallidal neurons results from both volumic and synaptic release of the transmitter.

Cholinergic Neurons Intrinsic to the Primate External Pallidum

Synapse (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25967898

We report the presence of a small population of cholinergic neurons closely intermingled with external pallidal neurons in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The majority of these cholinergic pallidal neurons are devoid of Nerve Growth Factor receptor (NGFr), which sets them apart from the population of corticopetal NGFr-rich neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and its ectopic elements that impinge dorsally upon the pallidum via the medullary laminae.

Morphological Evidence for Dopamine Interactions with Pallidal Neurons in Primates

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26321923

The external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive dopamine (DA) axonal projections arising mainly from the substantia nigra pars compacta and this innervation is here described based on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical observations gathered in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of TH positive (+) axon varicosities reveals a similar density of innervation in the GPe (0.19 ± 0.02 × 10(6) axon varicosities/mm(3) of tissue) and GPi (0.17 ± 0.01 × 10(6)), but regional variations occur in the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes in both GPe and GPi and along the mediolateral plane in the GPe. Estimation of the neuronal population in the GPe (3.47 ± 0.15 × 10(3) neurons/mm(3)) and GPi (2.69 ± 0.18 × 10(6)) yields a mean ratio of, respectively, 28 ± 3 and 68 ± 15 TH+ axon varicosities/pallidal neuron. At the electron microscopic level, TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe appear significantly smaller than those in the GPi and very few TH+ axon varicosities are engaged in synaptic contacts in the GPe (17 ± 3%) and the GPi (15 ± 4%) compared to their unlabeled counterparts (77 ± 6 and 50 ± 12%, respectively). Genuine synaptic contacts made by TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe and GPi are of the symmetrical and asymmetrical type. Such synaptic contacts together with the presence of numerous synaptic vesicles in all TH+ axon varicosities observed in the GPe and GPi support the functionality of the DA pallidal innervation. By virtue of its predominantly volumic mode of action, DA appears to exert a key modulatory effect upon pallidal neurons in concert with the more direct GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory actions of the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. We argue that the DA pallidal innervation plays a major role in the functional organization of the primate basal ganglia under both normal and pathological conditions.

Corrigendum: Morphological Evidence for Dopamine Interactions with Pallidal Neurons in Primates

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26483643

[This corrects the article on p. 111 in vol. 9, PMID: 26321923.].

Asynaptic Feature and Heterogeneous Distribution of the Cholinergic Innervation of the Globus Pallidus in Primates

Brain Structure & Function. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 25523104

The internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive a significant cholinergic (ACh) innervation from the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The present immunohistochemical study describes this innervation in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), as visualized with an antibody raised against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of ChAT positive (+) axon varicosities reveals a significantly lower density of innervation in GPi (0.26 ± 0.03 × 10(6)) than in GPe (0.47 ± 0.07 × 10(6) varicosities/mm(3) of tissue), with the anterior half of both segments more densely innervated than the posterior half. Neuronal density of GPi (3.00 ± 0.13 × 10(3) neurons/mm(3)) and GPe (3.62 ± 0.22 × 10(3) neurons/mm(3)) yields a mean ratio of ChAT+ axon varicosities per pallidal neuron of 74 ± 10 in the GPi and 128 ± 28 in the GPe. At the electron microscopic level, the pallidal ChAT+ axon varicosities are significantly smaller than their unlabeled counterparts, but are comparable in size and shape in the two pallidal segments. Only a minority of ChAT+ varicosities displays a synaptic specialization (12 % in the GPi and 17 % in the GPe); these scarce synaptic contacts are mostly of the symmetrical type and occur exclusively on pallidal dendrites. No ChAT+ axo-axonic synaptic contacts are observed, suggesting that ACh exerts its modulatory action on pallidal afferents through diffuse transmission, whereas pallidal neurons may be influenced by both volumic and synaptic delivery of ACh.

Chemical Anatomy of Pallidal Afferents in Primates

Brain Structure & Function. Dec, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27028222

Neurons of the globus pallidus receive massive inputs from the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus, but their activity, as well as those of their striatal and subthalamic inputs, are modulated by brainstem afferents. These include serotonin (5-HT) projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus, cholinergic (ACh) inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and dopamine (DA) afferents from the substantia nigra pars compacta. This review summarizes our recent findings on the distribution, quantitative and ultrastructural aspects of pallidal 5-HT, ACh and DA innervations. These results have led to the elaboration of a new model of the pallidal neuron based on a precise knowledge of the hierarchy and chemical features of the various synaptic inputs. The dense 5-HT, ACh and DA innervations disclosed in the associative and limbic pallidal territories suggest that these brainstem inputs contribute principally to the planification of motor behaviors and the regulation of attention and mood. Although 5-HT, ACh and DA inputs were found to modulate pallidal neurons and their afferents mainly through asynaptic (volume) transmission, genuine synaptic contacts occur between these chemospecific axon varicosities and pallidal dendrites, revealing that these brainstem projections have a direct access to pallidal neurons, in addition to their indirect input through the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. Altogether, these findings reveal that the brainstem 5-HT, ACh and DA pallidal afferents act in concert with the more robust GABAergic inhibitory striatopallidal and glutamatergic excitatory subthalamopallidal inputs. We hypothesize that a fragile equilibrium between forebrain and brainstem pallidal afferents plays a key role in the functional organization of the primate basal ganglia, in both health and disease.

Exosome Secretion is a Key Pathway for Clearance of Pathological TDP-43

Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Dec, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27679482

Cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregation is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Here we investigated the role of exosomes in the secretion and propagation of TDP-43 aggregates. TDP-43 was detected in secreted exosomes from Neuro2a cells and primary neurons but not from astrocytes or microglia. Evidence is presented that protein aggregation and autophagy inhibition are factors that promote exosomal secretion of TDP-43. We also report that levels of exosomal TDP-43 full length and C-terminal fragment species are upregulated in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brains. Exposure of Neuro2a cells to exosomes from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brain, but not from control brain, caused cytoplasmic redistribution of TDP-43, suggesting that secreted exosomes might contribute to propagation of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Yet, inhibition of exosome secretion by inactivation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 with GW4869 or by silencing RAB27A provoked formation of TDP-43 aggregates in Neuro2a cells. Moreover, administration of GW4869 exacerbated the disease phenotypes of transgenic mice expressing human TDP-43(A315T) mutant. Thus, even though results suggest that exosomes containing pathological TDP-43 may play a key role in the propagation of TDP-43 proteinopathy, a therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis based on inhibition of exosome production would seem inappropriate, as in vivo data suggest that exosome secretion plays an overall beneficial role in neuronal clearance of pathological TDP-43.

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