Articles by Luci A. Witcomb in JoVE
Non-Invasive Model of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in the Neonatal Rat Fatma Dalgakiran1, Luci A. Witcomb1, Alex J. McCarthy1, George M. H. Birchenough2, Peter W. Taylor1 1School of Pharmacy, University College London, 2Mucin Biology Group, University of Gothenburg Here, a procedure is described for the establishment of systemic infection in the neonatal rat with cultures of Escherichia coli K1. This non-invasive procedure permits colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, translocation of the pathogen to the systemic circulation, and invasion of the central nervous system at the choroid plexus.
Other articles by Luci A. Witcomb on PubMed
A Longitudinal Study of the Role of Dichelobacter Nodosus and Fusobacterium Necrophorum Load in Initiation and Severity of Footrot in Sheep Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24703249 Footrot is an infectious bacterial disease of sheep that causes lameness. The causal agent is Dichelobacter nodosus. There is debate regarding the role of Fusobacterium necrophorum in disease initiation. This research used an observational longitudinal study of footrot, together with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of bacterial load of D. nodosus and F. necrophorum, to elucidate the roles of each species in the development of disease. All feet of 18 a priori selected sheep were monitored for five weeks assessing disease severity (healthy, interdigital dermatitis (ID) and severe footrot (SFR)) and bacterial load. A multinomial model was used to analyse these data. Key unadjusted results were that D. nodosus was detected more frequently on feet with ID, whereas F. necrophorum was detected more frequently on feet with SFR. In the multinomial model, ID was associated with increasing log10 load of D. nodosus the week of observation (OR=1.28 (95% CI=1.08-1.53)) and the week prior to development of ID (OR=1.20 (95% CI=1.01-1.42). There was no association between log10 load(2) of F. necrophorum and presence of ID (OR=0.99 (95% CI=0.96-1.02))). SFR was associated with increasing log10 load of D. nodosus the week before disease onset (OR=1.42 (95% CI=1.02-1.96)) but not once SFR had occurred. SFR was positively associated with log10 load(2) of F. necrophorum once disease was present (OR=1.06 (95% CI=1.01-1.11)). In summary, there was an increased risk of increasing D. nodosus load the week prior to development of ID and SFR and during an episode of ID. In contrast, F. necrophorum load was not associated with ID before or during an episode, and was only associated with SFR once present. These results contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of footrot and highlight that D. nodosus load plays the primary role in disease initiation and progression, with F. necrophorum load playing a secondary role. Further studies in more flocks and climates would be useful to confirm these findings. This study identifies that D. nodosus load is highest during ID. This supports previous epidemiological findings, which demonstrate that controlling ID is the most effective management strategy to prevent new cases of ID and SFR.
Dynamics and Impact of Footrot and Climate on Hoof Horn Length in 50 Ewes from One Farm over a Period of 10 Months Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997). Sep, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24973007 Footrot, including interdigital dermatitis, is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus cause the majority of lameness in sheep in the UK. Lame sheep often have overgrown hoof horn but recent evidence has indicated that trimming overgrown hoof horn increases recovery time, and that routine foot trimming of the flock does not reduce the prevalence or incidence of lameness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal associations between hoof horn length, footrot and climate. Fifty multiparous ewes were monitored for 10 months. On eight occasions hoof horn length, foot lesions and body condition were recorded. At the first examination, ewes were assigned to one of two treatment groups. All ewes that became lame with footrot were treated at one time point per week, either by trimming hoof horn and applying a topical antibiotic spray or with parenteral antibiotic and topical antibiotic spray. Hoof horn length in ewes at pasture varied over the year and was associated with temperature and rainfall. New cases of footrot occurred all year round and were associated with prior prevalence of footrot in the flock and prior temperature and rainfall. Overgrown hoof horn did not precede lameness but occurred once the sheep were lame. One year of prompt treatment of footrot reduced the range in hoof horn length in the sheep in both treatment groups. At the end of the study the hoof lengths of ewes in both groups were not significantly different. On this farm, hoof horn length was self-regulating in both non-lame and treated lame sheep whether trimming was part of the treatment or not and there would have been no benefit from routine foot trimming of this flock.