Articles by Malte Kremer in JoVE
Application of MultiColor FlpOut Technique to Study High Resolution Single Cell Morphologies and Cell Interactions of Glia in Drosophila Sara Batelli1, Malte Kremer1,2, Christophe Jung1, Ulrike Gaul1 1Gene Center and Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 2Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Cells display different morphologies and establish a variety of interactions with their neighbors. This protocol describes how to reveal the morphology of single cells and to investigate cell-cell interaction by using the well-established Gal4/UAS expression system.
Other articles by Malte Kremer on PubMed
Structural Long-term Changes at Mushroom Body Input Synapses Current Biology : CB. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20951043 How does the sensory environment shape circuit organization in higher brain centers? Here we have addressed the dependence on activity of a defined circuit within the mushroom body of adult Drosophila. This is a brain region receiving olfactory information and involved in long-term associative memory formation. The main mushroom body input region, named the calyx, undergoes volumetric changes correlated with alterations of experience. However, the underlying modifications at the cellular level remained unclear. Within the calyx, the clawed dendritic endings of mushroom body Kenyon cells form microglomeruli, distinct synaptic complexes with the presynaptic boutons of olfactory projection neurons. We developed tools for high-resolution imaging of pre- and postsynaptic compartments of defined calycal microglomeruli. Here we show that preventing firing of action potentials or synaptic transmission in a small, identified fraction of projection neurons causes alterations in the size, number, and active zone density of the microglomeruli formed by these neurons. These data provide clear evidence for activity-dependent organization of a circuit within the adult brain of the fly.
The Glia of the Adult Drosophila Nervous System Glia. Apr, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28133822 Glia play crucial roles in the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. While the GLIA in the Drosophila embryo have been well characterized, their study in the adult nervous system has been limited. Here, we present a detailed description of the glia in the adult nervous system, based on the analysis of some 500 glial drivers we identified within a collection of synthetic GAL4 lines. We find that glia make up ∼10% of the cells in the nervous system and envelop all compartments of neurons (soma, dendrites, axons) as well as the nervous system as a whole. Our morphological analysis suggests a set of simple rules governing the morphogenesis of glia and their interactions with other cells. All glial subtypes minimize contact with their glial neighbors but maximize their contact with neurons and adapt their macromorphology and micromorphology to the neuronal entities they envelop. Finally, glial cells show no obvious spatial organization or registration with neuronal entities. Our detailed description of all glial subtypes and their regional specializations, together with the powerful genetic toolkit we provide, will facilitate the functional analysis of glia in the mature nervous system. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:606-638.