Articles by Rafaela C. Sartore in JoVE
Chromosomal Spread Preparation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Karyotyping Priscila B. Campos1, Rafaela C. Sartore1, Stacie N. Abdalla1, Stevens K. Rehen1 1Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio De Janeiro-UFRJ Karyotyping is a simple and useful technique widely used for detecting genetic alterations. Here we describe a step by step protocol for chromosome spread preparation of human embryonic stem cells for monitoring the chromosomal status of these cells maintained in culture.
Other articles by Rafaela C. Sartore on PubMed
Cannabinoids Modulate Cell Survival in Embryoid Bodies Cell Biology International. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19947926 ESCs (embryonic stem cells) are potentially able to replace damaged cells in animal models of neural pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and spinal cord lesions. Nevertheless, many issues remain unsolved regarding optimal culturing procedures for these cells. For instance, on their path to differentiation in vitro, which usually involves the formation of EBs (embryoid bodies), they may present chromosomal instability, loss of pluripotency or simply die. Therefore, finding strategies to increase the survival of cells within EBs is of great interest. Cannabinoid receptors have many roles in the physiology of the adult body, but little is known about their role in the biology of ESCs. Herein, we investigated how two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, may affect the outcome of ESCs aggregated as EBs. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) revealed that EBs expressed both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Aggregation of ESCs into EBs followed by 2-day incubation with a CB1/CB2 agonist reduced cell death by approximately 45%, which was reversed by a CB1 antagonist. A specific CB2 agonist also reduced cell death by approximately 20%. These data indicate that both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are involved in reducing cell death in EBs mediated by exogenous cannabinoids. No increase in proliferation, neural differentiation or changes in chromosomal stability was observed. This study indicates that cannabinoid signalling is functionally implicated in the biology of differentiating ESCs, being the first to show that activation of cannabinoid receptors is able to increase cell viability via reduction of cell death rate in EBs.
Retinoic Acid-treated Pluripotent Stem Cells Undergoing Neurogenesis Present Increased Aneuploidy and Micronuclei Formation PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21674001 The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naÃ¯ve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal variation accompanies neurogenesis in vitro.