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1-Butanol:

Making Conjugation-induced Fluorescent PEGylated Virus-like Particles by Dibromomaleimide-disulfide Chemistry

1Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Undergraduate Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Undergraduate Healthcare Studies, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas

JoVE 57712


 Bioengineering

An Objective and Reproducible Test of Olfactory Learning and Discrimination in Mice

1Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 4Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, 5Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital

JoVE 57142


 Neuroscience

Overexpression and Purification of Human Cis-prenyltransferase in Escherichia coli

1Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 4Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

JoVE 56430


 Immunology and Infection

Dean-Stark Trap

JoVE 10340

Source: Vy M. Dong and Jan Riedel, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

A Dean-Stark trap is a special piece of glassware, which allows the collection of water during a reaction through an azeotropic distillation. The desire to collect water from a reaction can have various reasons. It can drive the equilibria in reactions, where water is formed as a byproduct. According to Le Chatelier's principle, a change in temperature, pressure, concentration, or volume will cause a readjustment of a reversible reaction to establish a new equilibrium. An acetal formation is a reversible reaction, where water is formed as a byproduct. In such cases, achieving good yields is possible by driving the equilibrium towards the product side via the removal of water. The Dean-Stark trap also allows the determination of water content or can be used to remove water from a solvent mixture through an azeotropic distillation.


 Organic Chemistry II

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