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Animals, Laboratory:

The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell: labeling by GFP-fusions, RNAi Interaction Screen and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56101


 Developmental Biology

Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

1Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 2Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Department of Entomology, Kansas State University

JoVE 52523


 Biology

The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100


 Developmental Biology

Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY

JoVE 53897


 Neuroscience

Basic Care Procedures

JoVE 10290

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Mice and rats account for over 90% of the animals used for biomedical research. The proper care of these research animals is critical to the outcome of experiments. There are general procedures that apply to the majority of these mice and rats, but some of the animals, such as the immunocompromised ones, require additional steps to be taken to sustain them for experimentation. Commonly used immunocompromised mice include those that have naturally occurred in inbred mice and those that have been created through genetic engineering. The first immunocompromised mice used in research were "nude" mice. The BALB/c Nude (nu) mouse was discovered in 1966, within a BALB/c colony that was producing mice lacking both hair and a thymus. These athymic mice have an inhibited immune system that is devoid of T cells. The value of this animal was soon discovered for the use in studies of microbial infections, immune deficiencies, and autoimmunity. Although not as commonly used as the nude mouse, there is also a nude rat. The nude rat is T cell deficient and shows depleted cell populations in thymus-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs. Another naturally occurring immune deficient mouse is the severe comb


 Lab Animal Research

Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia

1Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 2Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 3Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 4Unit of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Experimental Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57046


 JoVE In-Press

Tickling, a Technique for Inducing Positive Affect When Handling Rats

1Center for the Study of Animal Well-being, Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, 2Canadian Council on Animal Care, 3Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Animal Welfare Science, College of Agriculture, Purdue University, 4Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57190


 JoVE In-Press

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE 10221

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.


 Lab Animal Research

An Experimental Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rabbit: Methodological Considerations, Development, and Assessment

1CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 2Department of Physiology, Universitat de València, 3INCLIVA, 4Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 5UCIM, Universitat de València, 6Department of Physiotherapy, Universitat de València

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57117


 JoVE In-Press

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 52407


 Behavior

Bile Duct Ligation in Mice: Induction of Inflammatory Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Obstructive Cholestasis

1Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 3Department of Medicine III, RWTH Aachen University

JoVE 52438


 Medicine

Analysis of 18FDG PET/CT Imaging as a Tool for Studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Treatment in Non-human Primates

1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

JoVE 56375


 Immunology and Infection

Ultrahigh Resolution Mouse Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid Intraocular Injection in Retinal Gene Therapy Research

1Research Service, VA Western New York Healthcare System, 2Department of Ophthalmology, (Ross Eye Institute), Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 3Pharmacology/Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 4Physiology/Biophysics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 5Neuroscience Program, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 6The RNA Institute, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 7The SUNY Eye Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55894


 JoVE In-Press

Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication

1Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, University Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 3571, Institut Pasteur, 2Neurophysiology and Behavior, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7102, 3Bio Image Analysis, CNRS URA 2582, Institut Pasteur

JoVE 53871


 Behavior

Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, 2Center for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, West Virginia University, 3National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

JoVE 50263


 Biology

Rodent Identification II

JoVE 10182

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Animal records must be accurately maintained to ensure that data collection is correct. Records range from maintaining information on cage cards to having a detailed database with all of the relevant information on each animal. The primary component of recordkeeping is the individual identification of research animals. There are a variety of methods suitable for identifying mice and rats. This video describes the procedural techniques for tattooing, microchip placement, and temporary identification methods, and also explores the benefits of each.


 Lab Animal Research

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869


 Behavior

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE 10293

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required. Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.


 Lab Animal Research

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