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Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Esophageal Heat Transfer for Patient Temperature Control and Targeted Temperature Management

1Center for Advanced Design, Research, and Exploration, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Attune Medical, 3University of Maryland School of Nursing, 4University of Western Ontario, 5University Medical Centre Maribor, 6University of Maryland, 7Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center

JoVE 56579


 Medicine

Lateral Canthotomy and Inferior Cantholysis

JoVE 10266

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Lateral canthotomy is a potentially eyesight-saving procedure when performed emergently for an orbital compartment syndrome. An orbital compartment syndrome results from a buildup of pressure behind the eye; as pressure mounts, both the optic nerve and its vascular supply are compressed, rapidly leading to nerve damage and blindness if the pressure is not quickly relieved. The medial and lateral canthal tendons hold the eyelids firmly in place forming an anatomical compartment with limited space for the globe. In an orbital compartment syndrome, pressure rapidly increases as the globe is forced against the eyelids. Lateral canthotomy is the procedure by which the lateral canthal tendon is severed, thereby releasing the globe from its fixed position. Often, severing of the lateral canthal tendon alone is not enough to release the globe and the inferior portion (inferior crus) of the lateral canthal tendon also needs to be severed (inferior cantholysis). This increases precious space behind the eye by allowing the globe to become more proptotic, resulting in decompression. Most frequently, orbital compartment syndrome is the result of acute facial trauma, with the subsequent development of a retrobulbar


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065


 Medicine

Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE 10283

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothorax, traumatic hemothorax, large-volume pleural effusions, and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothorax, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement, causing respiratory distress. In addition, excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest tube may


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary

JoVE 2138


 Neuroscience

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Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE 10233

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air trapped within the pleural space causes separation of the lung from the chest wall, disrupting normal breathing mechanisms. Pneumothorax may be small without conversion to tension, but when there is a significant and expanding amount of air trapped in the pleural cavity, the increasing pressure from this abnormal air causes the lung to shrink and collapse, leading to respiratory distress. This pressure also pushes the mediastinum (including the heart and great vessels) away from its central position, causing inability of blood to return to the heart and diminishing the cardiac output. Tension pneumothoraces cause chest pain, extreme shortness of breath, respiratory failure, hypoxia, tachycardia, and hypotension. They need to be relieved emergently when a patient is in extremis. Tension pneumothoraces are definitively managed by procedures that allow removal of trapped air, such as insertion of a chest tube. However, materials for chest tube placement are typically


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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Preparing and Administering Enteric Tube Medications

JoVE 10287

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

An enteric tube is a tube that is inserted and passed into the stomach or intestines. Enteric tubes serve multiple purposes, including stomach decompression (through the removal of air, gastric contents, and secretions), enteric feeding, and/or the administration of medications or oral contrast. Enteric tubes are indicated for patients with impaired swallowing and for patients with neurological or other conditions associated with an increased risk of aspiration, or when the patient is unable to maintain adequate oral intake of fluid or calories. There are multiple types of enteric tubes, with their generic names assigned according to the insertion site and the gastrointestinal termination point. For instance, one of the common tube types is the nasogastric tube, which is inserted through a nostril and passed along the upper gastrointestinal tract into the stomach. When administering medications through an enteric tube, it is important to ensure that the tube terminates in the intended gastrointestinal location. When enteric tubes are initially placed, the position of the tube is verified by X-ray. However, due to gastric peristalsis, enteric tubes may migrate out of their intended


 Nursing Skills

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Igneous Intrusive Rock

JoVE 10036

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

Igneous rocks are products of the cooling and crystallization of high temperature liquid rock, called magma. Magmatic temperatures typically range from approximately 800 °C to 1,200 °C. Molten rock is, perhaps luckily for humans, an anomaly on planet Earth. If a random and imaginary drill hole were made in the Earth, it would most likely not reach a region of truly and totally molten material until the outer core, at nearly 2,900 km beneath the surface (Earth's radius is 6,370 km). Even there, this molten material would predominantly consist of liquid iron, not true silicate rock, and be incapable of ever reaching Earth's surface. Volcanic eruptions and igneous rocks do occur though, and they are evidence that there are indeed isolated regions of melting and magma generation within the Earth.


 Earth Science

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Igneous Volcanic Rock

JoVE 10037

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

Igneous rocks are the products of cooling and crystallization of magma. Volcanic rocks are a particular variety of igneous rock, forming as a consequence of magma breaching the surface, then cooling and crystallizing in the subaerial environment. 

Magma is liquid rock that typically ranges in temperature from approximately 800 °C to 1,200 °C (Figure 1). Magma itself is produced within the Earth via three primary melting mechanisms, namely the addition of heat, addition of volatiles, and decompression. Each mode of melt generation tends to produce specific types of magma and, therefore, distinct eruptive styles and structures. Figure 1. Fresh lava breakout on Kilauea, Hawaii. Lava is the term for magma that is on Earth’s surface.


 Earth Science

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Partial Optic Nerve Transection in Rats: A Model Established with a New Operative Approach to Assess Secondary Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China, 2Institute of Immunology, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, 3Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

JoVE 56272


 Neuroscience

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Considerations for Rodent Surgery

JoVE 10285

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 dictates that rodent survival surgery be performed aseptically. Aseptic technique utilizes specific practices that minimize the contamination of the surgical site, including patient preparation, surgeon preparation, sterilization of instruments and other supplies, and the use of a clean and controlled environment. Presurgical planning, intraoperative monitoring, and postoperative care are essential for successful recovery of animals from survival surgeries.


 Lab Animal Research

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Surgical Fixation of Sternal Fractures: Preoperative Planning and a Safe Surgical Technique Using Locked Titanium Plates and Depth Limited Drilling

1Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 2Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 3Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, St.-Theresien Hospital, 4Institute of Anatomy I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg

JoVE 52124


 Medicine

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Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 50574


 Medicine

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A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

1Anatomy Department, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department and Burn Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central - Hospital de São José, 3UCIBIO, Life Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 4CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 5Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LIBPhys, 6Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central – Hospital de São José

JoVE 55281


 Medicine

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A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy Method

1FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 2Institute of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, 3Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 4School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly

JoVE 55593


 Medicine

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Surgical Training for the Implantation of Neocortical Microelectrode Arrays Using a Formaldehyde-fixed Human Cadaver Model

1Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering, Geneva, 2Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Geneva University Hospitals, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Geneva University Hospitals, 5Clinical Anatomy Research Group, Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva

JoVE 56584


 Medicine

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