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Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University

JoVE 54227


 Bioengineering

In Situ Neutron Powder Diffraction Using Custom-made Lithium-ion Batteries

1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales

JoVE 52284


 Engineering

Comprehensive Workflow for the Genome-wide Identification and Expression Meta-analysis of the ATL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene Family in Grapevine

1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, 3Dipartimento di Agraria, SACEG, Università degli Studi di Sassari

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56626


 JoVE In-Press

Transplantation of Zebrafish Pediatric Brain Tumors into Immune-competent Hosts for Long-term Study of Tumor Cell Behavior and Drug Response

1Department of Oncological Sciences and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City

JoVE 55712


 Cancer Research

Determining Rate Laws and the Order of Reaction

JoVE 10193

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

All chemical reactions have a specific rate defining the progress of reactants going to products. This rate can be influenced by temperature, concentration, and the physical properties of the reactants. The rate also includes the intermediates and transition states that are formed but are neither the reactant nor the product. The rate law defines the role of each reactant in a reaction and can be used to mathematically model the time required for a reaction to proceed. The general form of a rate equation is shown below:     where A and B are concentrations of different molecular species, m and n are reaction orders, and k is the rate constant. The rate of nearly every reaction changes over time as reactants are depleted, making effective collisions less likely to occur. The rate constant, however, is fixed for any single reaction at a given temperature. The reaction order illustrates the number of molecular species involved in a reaction. It is very important to know the rate law, including rate constant and reaction order, which can only be deter


 General Chemistry

PTR-ToF-MS Coupled with an Automated Sampling System and Tailored Data Analysis for Food Studies: Bioprocess Monitoring, Screening and Nose-space Analysis

1Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 2Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, 3Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, 4Institute of Analytical Chemistry & Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, 5Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck

JoVE 54075


 Chemistry

Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids include: • Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3) • Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0) • Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0) • Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3) • Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2) • Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3) • Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2) • Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9) Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).


 Lab Safety

The Evolution of Silica Nanoparticle-polyester Coatings on Surfaces Exposed to Sunlight

1School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2BlueScope Steel Research, 3Infrared Microspectroscopy Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, 4School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University

JoVE 54309


 Engineering

Preparation of Giant Vesicles Encapsulating Microspheres by Centrifugation of a Water-in-oil Emulsion

1Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women's University, 2Department of Bioorganization Research, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 4Research Center for Complex Systems Biology, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 55282


 Biochemistry

Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Abramson Cancer Center

JoVE 52758


 Cancer Research

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