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Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.

 Science Education:

Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.

 JoVE Cancer Research

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 54532

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration III

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Production and Administration of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell (MSC) Spheroids Primed in 3-D Cultures Under Xeno-free Conditions

1Department of Biology, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Multi-Organ Support Technology Task Area, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, 4Internal Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center


JoVE 55126

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration IV

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.

 Science Education:

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse

 JoVE Bioengineering

Gene Transfection toward Spheroid Cells on Micropatterned Culture Plates for Genetically-modified Cell Transplantation

1Graduate School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 3Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo


JoVE 52384

 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital


JoVE 54606

 JoVE Medicine

Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice

1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri


JoVE 2968

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 2

Introducing Experimental Agents into the Mouse

JoVE Science Education

Many investigations performed in mice (Mus musculus) require the administration of an experimental agent to the animal. For example, it may be of interest to test the efficacy of a specific therapy, to induce a pathologic condition, or to administer anesthesia or palliative care. In order to ensure safe and efficient delivery, it is important to consider a variety of factors prior to the administration of the treatment. This video, which reviews agent administration in the mouse, begins by highlighting properties to consider, such as viscosity, dose, and palatability, when planning the administration of an experimental agent. The subsequent discussion focuses on injection methods, including delineation of the structural components of the syringe and needle, how to interpret needle gauge, and safe mouse restraint methods for common injection sites. Detailed instructions are provided for performing subcutaneous (SC/SubQ), intraperitoneal (IP), and tail vein (IV) injections in mice. Furthermore, applications of these techniques as well as alternative administration routes are discussed.

 JoVE Medicine

A Mouse Fetal Skin Model of Scarless Wound Repair

1Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 4University of Central Florida College of Medicine


JoVE 52297

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