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Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Cellular Respiration- Concept

JoVE 10567

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Living organisms require a continuous input of energy to maintain cellular and organismal functions such as growth, repair, movement, defense, and reproduction. Cells can only use chemical energy to fuel their functions, therefore they need to harvest energy from chemical bonds of biomolecules, such as sugars and lipids. Autotrophic organisms, namely…

 Lab Bio

Fermentation

JoVE 10745

Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic respiration by metabolizing glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. However, most eukaryotes can generate some energy in the absence of oxygen by anaerobic metabolism.

Aerobic respiration proceeds through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that end when oxygen–the final electron acceptor–is reduced to water. In the absence of oxygen, this reaction cannot proceed. Instead, cells regenerate NADH produced during glycolysis by using an organic molecule, such as pyruvate, as the final electron acceptor. The process of using an organic molecule to regenerate NAD+ from NADH is called fermentation. There are two types of fermentation based on the end products of the reaction: 1) lactic acid fermentation and 2) alcohol fermentation. In mammals, lactic acid fermentation takes place in red blood cells that cannot respire aerobically due to lack of mitochondria, as well as in skeletal muscles during strenuous exercise. It also occurs in certain bacteria, like those found in yogurt. In this reaction, pyruvate and NADH are converted to lactic acid and NAD+. Alcohol fermentation is a two-step process. In the first step, pyruvate is converted to carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde

 Core: Cellular Respiration

What is Cellular Respiration?

JoVE 10976

Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable form: adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

ATP stores energy in chemical bonds that can be quickly released when needed. Cells produce energy in the form of ATP through the process of cellular respiration. Although much of the energy from cellular respiration is released as heat, some of it is used to make ATP. During cellular respiration, several oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions transfer electrons from organic molecules to other molecules. Here, oxidation refers to electron loss and reduction to electron gain. The electron carriers NAD+ and FAD—and their reduced forms, NADH and FADH2, respectively—are essential for several steps of cellular respiration. Some prokaryotes use anaerobic respiration, which does not require oxygen. Most organisms use aerobic (oxygen-requiring) respiration, which produces much more ATP. Aerobic respiration generates ATP by breaking down glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration begin with glycolysis, which does not require oxygen. Glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate, yielding ATP. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate ferments, producing NAD+ for continued glycoly

 Core: Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis- Concept

JoVE 10565

Autotrophs

Almost all living organisms on Earth depend on photosynthesis, which is the process that converts sunlight energy into a simple sugar called glucose. This molecule can be used as a short-term energy source or to build more complex carbohydrates like starches for long-term energy storage. Autotrophs are organisms that capture light energy using photosynthesis. Also known …

 Lab Bio

A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice

1Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 3Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 4Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

JoVE 56053

 Biology

Antimicrobial Peptides Produced by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids

1Department of Biocatalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 2Department of Bioenergetics, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 3Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen

JoVE 57551

 Bioengineering

Phosphopeptide Enrichment Coupled with Label-free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry to Investigate the Phosphoproteome in Prostate Cancer

1Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 2Graduate Program in Quantitative Biomedicine, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA Metabolomics Center, and California NanoSystems Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 5Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 6Pharmacology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 7Cancer Metabolism and Growth Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey

JoVE 57996

 Cancer Research

Dendrimer-based Uneven Nanopatterns to Locally Control Surface Adhesiveness: A Method to Direct Chondrogenic Differentiation

1Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), 2Department of Engineering Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), 3Networking Biomedical Research Center (CIBER), 4Instituto de Investigacin Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Department of Organic Chemistry, Universidad de Málaga (UMA), 5Andalusian Centre for Nanomedicine and Biotechnology-BIONAND, 6Unidad de Bioingeniería Tisular y Terapia Celular (GBTTC-CHUAC), Grupo de Reumatolog ía, Instituto de Investigación Biomèdica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), Sergas, Universidade da Coruña (UDC), 7Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 8Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Department of Cell Biology, Genetics and Physiology, Universidad de Málaga (UMA)

JoVE 56347

 Bioengineering

Transforming, Genome Editing and Phenotyping the Nitrogen-fixing Tropical Cannabaceae Tree Parasponia andersonii

1Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 2Center of Technology for Agricultural Production, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), 3Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 4Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing University of Agriculture

JoVE 59971

 Genetics

Probiotic Studies in Neonatal Mice Using Gavage

1Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Centre, 4Animal Care Services, University of British Columbia

JoVE 59074

 Immunology and Infection

Injecting Gryllus bimaculatus Eggs

1Colby College, 2Division of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 3Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 4Department Biology and Department of Neuroscience, Bowdoin College, 5Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University

JoVE 59726

 Developmental Biology

Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay

1Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 2Allergy & Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 3Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne, 4Department of Microbiology & Immunology at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection & Immunity, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 51069

 Immunology and Infection

A Rapidly Incremented Tethered-Swimming Maximal Protocol for Cardiorespiratory Assessment of Swimmers

1Department of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Bauru, 2Institute of Bioscience, Graduate Program in Human Development and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Rio Claro, 3Ciper, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, 4Department of Science and Technology, School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 5CDP2T - Center for Product Development and Technology Transfer, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 6Universidade Europeia, 7Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 8Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60630

 JoVE In-Press

Preparation of High-Quality Fermented Fish Product

1State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, 2The Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University

JoVE 60265

 Biochemistry

Procedure for the Transfer of Polymer Films Onto Porous Substrates with Minimized Defects

1Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, 2Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 3Institute for Molecular Engineering, Argonne National Laboratory, 4Advanced Materials for Energy-Water Systems (AMEWS) Energy Frontier Research Center, Argonne National Laboratory

JoVE 59554

 Engineering

Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs

1Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 3Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 4Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

JoVE 58327

 Biology

Development of an Electrochemical DNA Biosensor to Detect a Foodborne Pathogen

1Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Laboratory of Functional Device, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 4La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University

JoVE 56585

 Bioengineering
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