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Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the Microtubules of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for Tubulin assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.

Microtubules

JoVE 10693

There are three types of cytoskeletal structures in eukaryotic cells—microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. With a diameter of about 25 nm, microtubules are the thickest of these fibers. Microtubules carry out a variety of functions that include cell structure and support, transport of organelles, cell motility (movement), and the separation of chromosomes during cell division. Microtubules are hollow tubes whose walls are made up of globular tubulin proteins. Each tubulin molecule is a heterodimer, consisting of a subunit of α-tubulin and a subunit of β-tubulin. The dimers are arranged in linear rows called protofilaments. A microtubule usually consists of 13 protofilaments, arranged side by side, wrapped around the hollow core. Because of this arrangement, microtubules are polar, meaning that they have different ends. The plus end has β-tubulin exposed, and the minus end has α-tubulin exposed. Microtubules can rapidly assemble—grow in length through polymerization of tubulin molecules—and disassemble. The two ends behave differently in this regard. The plus end is typically the fast-growing end or the end where tubulin is added, and the minus end is the slow-growing end or the end where tubulin dissociates—depending on the situation. This process of dynamic instability, where microtu

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Analysis of Retinoic Acid-induced Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Two and Three-dimensional Embryoid Bodies

1Department of Medicine, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Molecular Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Cancer Biology, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University

JoVE 55621

 Developmental Biology

Structure-function Studies in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Recombinase-mediated Cassette Exchange

1Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, 2Inflammation Research Center, VIB, 3Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, 4Cancer Research Institute Ghent (CRIG), 5Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 6Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, 7Mammalian Functional Genetics Laboratory, Division of Blood Cancers, Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Department of Clinical Haematology, Monash University and Alfred Health Alfred Centre

JoVE 55575

 Developmental Biology
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