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Motor Cortex: Area of the frontal lobe concerned with primary motor control. It lies anterior to the central sulcus.

Motor Maps

JoVE 10175

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the…

 Neuropsychology

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE 10270

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of…

 Neuropsychology

An Introduction to Motor Control

JoVE 5422

Motor control involves integration and processing of sensory information by our nervous system, followed by a response through our skeletal system to perform a voluntary or involuntary action. It is vital to understand how our neuroskeletal system controls motor behavior in order to evaluate injuries pertaining to general movement, reflexes, and coordination. An improved understanding of motor …

 Behavioral Science

Muscle Contraction

JoVE 10869

 

In skeletal muscles, acetylcholine is released by nerve terminals at the motor end plate—the point of synaptic communication between motor neurons and muscle fibers. Binding of acetylcholine to its receptors on the sarcolemma allows entry of sodium ions into the cell and triggers an action potential in the muscle cell. Thus, electrical signals from the brain are transmitted to the muscle. Subsequently, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine to prevent excessive muscle stimulation.   Individuals with the disorder myasthenia gravis, develop antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor. This prevents transmission of electrical signals between the motor neuron and muscle fiber and impairs skeletal muscle contraction. Myasthenia gravis is treated using drugs that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (allowing more opportunities for the neurotransmitter to stimulate the remaining receptors) or suppress the immune system (preventing the formation of antibodies). Unlike skeletal muscles, smooth muscles present in the walls of internal organs are innervated by the autonomic nervous system and undergo involuntary contractions. Contraction is mediated by the interaction between two filament proteins—actin and myosin. The interaction of actin and myosin is closely linked to intracellular calcium concentrat

 Core: Biology

Assessing Dexterity with Reaching Tasks

JoVE 5424

Reaching tasks are employed in behavioral neuroscience to investigate motor learning and forelimb dexterity. Much like human hands, rodents have dexterous forepaws, which are necessary for executing coordinated and precise motor movements. Experimenters may utilize food rewards to train rodents to reach and for testing their reaching abilities. These tasks help behavioral neuroscientist in…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience

JoVE 5210

Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system guides behavior, and how the various functional areas and networks within the brain correlate to specific behaviors and disease states. Researchers in this field utilize a wide variety of experimental methods ranging from complex animal training techniques to sophisticated imaging experiments in human subjects. …

 Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631

 Neuroscience

Structured Motor Rehabilitation After Selective Nerve Transfers

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Medical University of Vienna, 2Bioengineering Department, Imperial College London, 3Master's Degree Program Health Assisting Engineering, University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 4Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 5Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 59840

 Medicine

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744

 Neuroscience

Updated Technique for Reliable, Easy, and Tolerated Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, CUNY, 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, 3McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 4MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative Care, 5Department of Family and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

JoVE 59204

 Medicine

Brain State-dependent Brain Stimulation with Real-time Electroencephalography-Triggered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology & Stroke, University of Tübingen, 2Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, 3Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University

JoVE 59711

 Behavior

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan

JoVE 50309

 Medicine

Bilateral Assessment of the Corticospinal Pathways of the Ankle Muscles Using Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences and Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4Department of Health Professions, Medical University of South Carolina, 5Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 7Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina

JoVE 58944

 Neuroscience

Stimulation Location Determination using a 3D Digitizer with High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, 2Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, 3Southwest University Branch, Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, 4Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science

JoVE 60263

 Neuroscience

Stereotaxic Surgery for Implantation of Microelectrode Arrays in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

1Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience, Santos Dumont Institute, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo

JoVE 60240

 Neuroscience

Functional MRI in Conjunction with a Novel MRI-compatible Hand-induced Robotic Device to Evaluate Rehabilitation of Individuals Recovering from Hand Grip Deficits

1Medical Device & Simulation Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NMR Surgical Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Center for Surgery, Innovation and Bioengineering, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center of Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 59420

 Neuroscience

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Online Gamers

1Department of Radiology, Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Ewha Womans University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, 5Department of Neurology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea

JoVE 60007

 Behavior

Non-Invasive Modulation and Robotic Mapping of Motor Cortex in the Developing Brain

1Department of Neurosciences, University of Calgary, 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, 5Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 6Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 7Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary

JoVE 59594

 Neuroscience

Use of Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Neurofeedback to Downregulate Insular Cortex in Nicotine-Addicted Smokers

1Departamento de Psiquiatría, Escuela de Medicina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2Laboratory for Brain-Machine Interfaces and Neuromodulation, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 3Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 4Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, 5Unidad de Imágenes Cuantitativas Avanzadas, Departamento de Imágenes, Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, 6División de Neurociencia, Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (neuroCICS), Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad del Desarrollo, 7Institute di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 8Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering, 9Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

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JoVE 59441

 JoVE In-Press

Convection Enhanced Delivery of Optogenetic Adeno-associated Viral Vector to the Cortex of Rhesus Macaque Under Guidance of Online MRI Images

1Departments of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2Washington National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Washington, 4Department of Physiology and Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 59232

 Neuroscience

The Combined Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Robotic Therapy for the Upper Limb

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Instituto de Reabilitação Lucy Montoro, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 58495

 Neuroscience
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