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Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida

JoVE 50336


 Behavior

Assessment of Ultrasonic Vocalizations During Drug Self-administration in Rats

1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, 2The Waggoner Center of Addiction and Alcohol Research, University of Texas at Austin, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 4Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, 5Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin

JoVE 2041


 Neuroscience

Examination of Rapid Dopamine Dynamics with Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry During Intra-oral Tastant Administration in Awake Rats

1Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, 2Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52468


 Behavior

Positive Reinforcement Studies

JoVE 5426

Researchers study learning of a behavior through the use of operant conditioning. This type of learning involves associating the behavior with a consequence, which is a reward or punishment. If the consequence is a reward, it leads to reinforcement of the desired behavior. One type of reinforcement approach is positive reinforcement, where the behavior is rewarded with an artificial, natural, or social reinforcer. Studies using positive reinforcement as a tool can help tease out important details about neurological functioning associated with different behaviors. This video reviews the concepts behind reinforcement studies by using an example of a man training a dog to sit. Following this, we look at a generalized procedure of positive reinforcement commonly used by behavioral researchers. This involves, training rodents to perform a behavior (lever press) to get a reward (food). Lastly, specific applications demonstrate how scientists use positive reinforcement to understand behavior.


 Behavioral Science

A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training

1Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies, Wright State University, 2Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, 3Pediatric Radiology and Medical Imaging, Dayton Children's Hospital, 4Department of Trauma Care and Surgery, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, 5Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence, JBSA-Lackland, 6Department of Neurology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University

JoVE 55543


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Reward and Addiction

JoVE 5425

Consequences play a major role in controlling our behavior. If the consequence is a reward, then it encourages the associated behavior. Rewards can come in many forms such as a pleasant feeling, money, or food. However, sometimes an individual engages in compulsive behavior despite of negative consequences, and this state is known as addiction. Administration of addictive substances is neurochemically rewarding, which ultimately causes a loss of control in limiting the intake. Scientists aim to better understand the mechanisms behind these concepts and subsequently develop new therapies for treating substance abuse disorders. JoVE's introduction to reward and addiction explains the neuroanatomical components of the reward pathway. This is followed by some of the important questions asked by behavioral researchers such as how does our brain chemistry change in response to drug use. Prominent methods section reviews some of the tools being employed in the field, like self-administration protocols. Finally, the video discusses example experiments conducted in labs interested in investigating reward and addiction.


 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Learning and Memory

JoVE 5416

Learning is the process of acquiring new information and memory is the retention or storage of that information. Different types of learning, such as non-associative and associative learning, and different types of memory, such as long-term and short-term memory, have been associated with human behaviors. Studying these components in detail helps behavioral scientists understand the neural mechanisms behind these two complex phenomena. JoVE's overview on learning and memory introduces common terminologies and a brief outline of concepts in this field. Then, key questions asked by behavioral scientists and prominent tools such as fear conditioning and fMRI are discussed. Finally, actual experiments dealing with aging, eradication of traumatic memories, and improvising learning are reviewed.


 Behavioral Science

Self-administration Studies

JoVE 5427

Behavioral reinforcement induced by the rewarding feelings following substance use sometimes leads to addiction, which is demonstrated by increased self-administration. Drug self-administration studies in rodents model human behavior during drug abuse. These models are useful in understanding the neurobiological behavior of addiction in order to help scientists discover new treatments for drug dependence. This video reviews the concepts underlying self-administration studies. A general protocol of self-administration is discussed, which includes description of necessary equipment and different routes of administration commonly employed. Some modified protocols used to model more complex aspects of addiction, such as progressive ratio schedule and extinction, are also explained. Finally, experiments conducted in current addiction research labs will be examined.


 Behavioral Science

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