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October, 2006
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Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.


JoVE 10944

Symbiotic relationships are long-term, close interactions between individuals of different species that affect the distribution and abundance of those species. When a relationship is beneficial to both species, this is called mutualism. When the relationship is beneficial to one species but neither beneficial nor harmful to the other species, this is called commensalism. When one organism is harmed to benefit another, the relationship is known as parasitism. These types of relationships often result in co-evolution and contribute to the complexity of community structure. Mutualism occurs when both species benefit from a close relationship. One common example is the relationship between ants and aphids. Aphids feed on the phloem of plant stems with their piercing mouthparts and excrete a sugary fluid. Ants, which feed on this excretion, have evolved a complex relationship with the aphids similar to that between farmers and dairy cattle. Ants will carry the aphids to different food sources, protect the aphids from predation, and remove aphids infected by fungal parasites. The ants then benefit by consuming the sugary excretions produced by the aphids. Commensal relationships benefit one species, but neither hurt nor harm the other. For example, epiphytes (such as Spanish moss) use trees and other plants for structural support to grow but do not harm or b

 Core: Biology
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