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Pneumonia: Inflammation of any part, segment or lobe, of the lung parenchyma.

Bacterial Transformation- Concept

JoVE 10573

Background

In early 20th century, pneumonia was accountable for a large portion of infectious disease deaths1. In order to develop an effective vaccine against pneumonia, Frederick Griffith set out to study two different strains of the Streptococcus pneumoniae: a non-virulent strain with a rough appearance (R-strain) and a virulent strain with a smooth appearance…

 Lab Bio

Bacterial Transformation

JoVE 10982

In 1928, bacteriologist Frederick Griffith worked on a vaccine for pneumonia, which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Griffith studied two pneumonia strains in mice: one pathogenic and one non-pathogenic. Only the pathogenic strain killed host mice.

Griffith made an unexpected discovery when he killed the pathogenic strain and mixed its remains with the live, non-pathogenic strain. Not only did the mixture kill host mice, but it also contained living pathogenic bacteria that produced pathogenic offspring. Griffith concluded that the non-pathogenic strain received something from the dead pathogenic strain that transformed it into the pathogenic strain; he called this the transforming principle. At the time of Griffith’s studies, there was heated debate surrounding the identity of the genetic material. Much early evidence implicated proteins as the hereditary molecules. Griffith’s experiments on bacterial transformation provided some of the earliest data demonstrating that DNA is the genetic material. Bacteria incorporate external DNA through transformation. Transformation occurs naturally but is also induced in laboratories—often to clone DNA. To clone a specific gene, scientists can insert the gene into a plasmid, a circular DNA molecule that can independently replicate. The plasmid often contains an antibio

 Core: DNA Structure and Function

Respiratory Exam II: Percussion and Auscultation

JoVE 10041

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Learning the proper technique for percussion and auscultation of the respiratory system is vital and comes with practice on real patients. Percussion is a useful skill that is often skipped during everyday clinical practice, but if…

 Physical Examinations I

Preparing and Administering Inhaled Medications

JoVE 10390

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT


Inhaled medications are prescribed for conditions affecting the bronchi, which branch off of the trachea, and bronchioles, which are progressively smaller conducting airways spread throughout the lung tissue. These conditions can be…

 Nursing Skills

Respiratory Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10028

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Disorders of the respiratory system with a chief complaint of shortness of breath are among the most common reasons for both outpatient and inpatient evaluation. The most obvious visible clue to a respiratory problem will be whether the…

 Physical Examinations I

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE 10233

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA


A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air…

 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Percussion

JoVE 10136

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT


Simply stated, percussion refers to the striking of one object against another to produce sound. In the early 1700s, an Austrian inn-keeper's son, named Leopold Auenbrugger, discovered that he could take inventory …

 Physical Examinations I

The TUNEL Assay

JoVE 5651

One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the nuclear DNA fragmentation by nucleases. These enzymes are activated by caspases, the family of proteins that execute the cell death program. TUNEL assay is a method that takes advantage of this feature to detect apoptotic cells. In this assay, an enzyme called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase catalyzes the addition of dUTP…

 Cell Biology

Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay

1Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 2Allergy & Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 3Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne, 4Department of Microbiology & Immunology at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection & Immunity, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 51069

 Immunology and Infection

Replication of the Ordered, Nonredundant Library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutants

1Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57298

 Immunology and Infection

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319

 Medicine

Using Bioluminescent Imaging to Investigate Synergism Between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza A Virus in Infant Mice

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, 2Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 3The Centre for Dynamic Imaging, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research

JoVE 2357

 Immunology and Infection

Processing of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Matched Blood for Alveolar Macrophage and CD4+ T-cell Immunophenotyping and HIV Reservoir Assessment

1Research Institute McGill University Health Centre, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Université de Québec à Montréal, 3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, McGill University, 5Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 6Département de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal

JoVE 59427

 Immunology and Infection

Assessment of Sexual Behavior of Male Mice

1Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders and National Technology Institute on Mental Disorders, Hunan Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2Research Center for Pharmacology & Toxicology, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development (IMPLAD), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 3Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60154

 JoVE In-Press

Design of Cecal Ligation and Puncture and Intranasal Infection Dual Model of Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression

1West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 3State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University

JoVE 59386

 Immunology and Infection

Preparation Of Gushukang (GSK) Granules for In Vivo and In Vitro Experiments

1Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Spine Institute, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Key Laboratory of Theory and Therapy of Muscles and Bones, Ministry of Education, 4School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine

JoVE 59171

 Medicine

Protocol and Guidelines for Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound in Diagnosing Neonatal Pulmonary Diseases Based on International Expert Consensus

1Department of Neonatology and NICU, Beijing Chaoyang District Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, 2The Neonatal Lung Ultrasound Training Base, Chinese College of Critical Ultrasound, 3Emergency Department, Cattinara University Hospital, 4Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Radiology Department, Institute for Children and Adolescents Health Care of Vojvodina, 6Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Service Hospital Joan XXIII Tarragona, University Rovira i Virgil, 7Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center, 8Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, 9Department of Neonatology, Udine University Hospital, 10Center for Newborn Care, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, 11Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 12Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 13Division of Neonatology and NICU, Cook County Children's Hospital, University of Illinois, 14Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University, 15Department of Pediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 16Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, 17Department of Ultrasound, GE Healthcare, 18Intensive Care Unit, Zhejiang Hospital, 19Collaborative Innovation Center for Maternal and Infant Health Service Application Technology, Quanzhou Medical College, 20Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated with Capital Medical University, 21Department of Neonatology and NICU, Tai'an City Central Hospital of Shandong Province, 22Department of Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine

JoVE 58990

 Medicine

Induction of Mouse Lung Injury by Endotracheal Injection of Bleomycin

1Servizio di Allevamento e Sperimentazione Animale, Polo ScientificoTecnologico, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS)-Istituto Nazionale Ricovero e Cura Anziani (INRCA), 2Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Molecolari, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 3UOS Centro di Terapia Cellulare "G. Lanzani", Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Papa Giovanni XXIII

JoVE 58922

 Immunology and Infection

Label-free Neutrophil Enrichment from Patient-derived Airway Secretion Using Closed-loop Inertial Microfluidics

1Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 4Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh

JoVE 57673

 Immunology and Infection
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