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Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.

Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays

1Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health canada, 2National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 5National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada

JoVE 2784


 Immunology and Infection

Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London

JoVE 55119


 Biology

Single Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for Comprehensive and Simultaneous Detection of Mutations in Hotspot Regions

1Circulating Tumor Biomarkers Laboratory, SiRIC, Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 2CNRS UMR144, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 4University Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 5University Paris Descartes, 6Inserm U830, Institut Curie, PSL Research University

JoVE 58051


 Genetics

In Vitro Method to Control Concentrations of Halogenated Gases in Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells

1Department of Perioperative Medicine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche (CNRS UMR) 6293, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1103, Laboratoire de Génétique, Reproduction et Développement (GReD), Université Clermont Auvergne, 3Department of Pharmacology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 4Nurse Anesthetist School, CHU Clermont-Ferrand

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58554


 JoVE In-Press

PTR-ToF-MS Coupled with an Automated Sampling System and Tailored Data Analysis for Food Studies: Bioprocess Monitoring, Screening and Nose-space Analysis

1Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 2Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, 3Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, 4Institute of Analytical Chemistry & Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, 5Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck

JoVE 54075


 Chemistry

A Guide to Modern Quantitative Fluorescent Western Blotting with Troubleshooting Strategies

1Division of Neurobiology, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, 2Division of Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, 3Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, 4Euan MacDonald Centre for Motor Neurone Disease Research, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 52099


 Biology

The Western Blot

JoVE 5065

Western Blotting is used to identify the presence of specific proteins in electrophoretically separated samples. Following separation by a technique known as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, western transfer is used to move proteins from a polyacrylamide gel onto a piece of membrane which traps the proteins in their respective locations. Next, the membranes are probed with antibodies in a process called immunboblotting. Immunoblotting uses antibody-protein and antibody-antibody binding through specific recognition sites, providing the high specificity required for identifying a single protein. The detection of antibodies takes place using reporter systems which includes the use of enzymes. Enzymes can be attached to the end of an antibody and react with substrates to produce changes in color or light. These signals can then be imaged and quantified using a process called densitometry. This video-article presents an overview of the western blot technique by describing western transfer, the use of antibody detection, and image analysis. The steps involved with western transfer such as the assembly of the transfer sandwich and transfer conditions are discussed in detail as well as the theory behind antibody binding and detection of those antibodies. The broad applications of this technique are described through severa


 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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