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Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Introduction to Titration

JoVE 5699

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Yee Nee Tan — Agency for Science, Technology, and Research

Titration is a common technique used to quantitatively determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte.1-4 It is also called volumetric analysis, as the measurement of volumes is critical in titration. There are many types of titrations based on the types of reactions they exploit. The most common types are acid-base titrations and redox titrations.5-11 In a typical titration process, a standard solution of titrant in a burette is gradually applied to react with an analyte with an unknown concentration in an Erlenmeyer flask. For acid-base titration, a pH indicator is usually added in the analyte solution to indicate the endpoint of titration.12 Instead of adding pH indicators, pH can also be monitored using a pH meter during a titration process and the endpoint is determined graphically from a pH titration curve. The volume of titrant recorded at the endpoint can be used to calculate the concentration of the analyte based on the reaction stoichiometry. For the acid-base titration presented in this video, the titrant is a standardized sodium hydroxide solution and the analyte is domestic vinegar. Vinegar is an acidic liquid that


 General Chemistry

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE 10197

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions. Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully. While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi


 General Chemistry

Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech

JoVE 51257


 Chemistry

Nanosensors to Detect Protease Activity In Vivo for Noninvasive Diagnostics

1Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech College of Engineering and Emory School of Medicine, 2Parker H. Petit Institute of Bioengineering and Bioscience, 3Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, Georgia Tech, 4Integrated Cancer Research Center, Georgia Tech, 5The Georgia Immunoengineering Consortium, Emory University and Georgia Tech

JoVE 57937


 Bioengineering

Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, 3GE Global Research, 4Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik der Technischen Universität München (IMETUM), Technische Universität München, 5Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 6IDG Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München

JoVE 54751


 Cancer Research

Fabrication of a Functionalized Magnetic Bacterial Nanocellulose with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4Program of Study and Control of Tropical Diseases (PECET), University of Antioquia, 5Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, 6WHO Collaborating Center for Vaccine Research, Evaluation and Training on Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 7Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 52951


 Bioengineering

Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory

JoVE 50711


 Bioengineering

Quantification of Information Encoded by Gene Expression Levels During Lifespan Modulation Under Broad-range Dietary Restriction in C. elegans

1Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, 2Interdisciplinary Bioengineering Graduate Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 4School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

JoVE 56292


 Genetics

123458
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