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Spinal Canal:

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Spinal Cord Blood Flow in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

1Laboratoire d'étude de la microcirculation, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot Paris VII, U942, 2Department of orthopaedic surgery, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Intensive care and Anesthesiology, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital

JoVE 52536


 Medicine

Analysis of Spinal Cord Blood Supply Combining Vascular Corrosion Casting and Fluorescence Microsphere Technique: A Feasibility Study in an Aortic Surgical Large Animal Model

1Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Center Freiburg University, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 2Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Medical Center Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56222


 JoVE In-Press

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

Neck Exam

JoVE 10180

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

Examination of the neck can be a challenge because of the many bones, joints, and ligaments that make up the underlying cervical spine. The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae stacked in gentle C-shaped curve. The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. These discs help provide stability and shock absorption to the cervical spine. The posterior elements of the vertebra, which include the laminae, transverse, and spinous processes and the facet joints, form a protective canal for the cervical spinal cord and its nerve roots. The cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements as they come from the brain and from the spinal cord. Therefore, injuries or disorders affecting the neck can also affect the underlying spinal cord and have potentially catastrophic consequences. The significant motion that occurs in the neck places the cervical spine at increased risk for injury and degenerative changes. The cervical spine is also a common source of radicular pain in the shoulder. For this reason, the neck should be evaluated as a routine part of every shoulder exam.


 Physical Examinations III

Laminotomy for Lumbar Dorsal Root Ganglion Access and Injection in Swine

1Departments of Anesthesiology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Translational Science Track, Mayo Graduate School, 2Department of Radiology (Section of Interventional Pain Management), Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic

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JoVE 56434


 JoVE In-Press

Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609


 Neuroscience

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto

JoVE 50887


 Medicine

Controlled Cervical Laceration Injury in Mice

1Norton Neuroscience Institute, Norton Healthcare, 2Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery and Goodman and Campbell Brain and Spine, Medical Neuroscience Graduate Program, and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 50030


 Medicine

The c-FOS Protein Immunohistological Detection: A Useful Tool As a Marker of Central Pathways Involved in Specific Physiological Responses In Vivo and Ex Vivo

1Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory “Hypoxia & Lung” EA2363, University Paris 13, 2UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, UMR_S1158 Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique, Sorbonne Universités, 3Laboratory of Excellence GR-Ex, 4Laboratory MOVE (EA 6314), University of Poitiers

JoVE 53613


 Biology

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture and Delivery in Autologous Conditions: A Smart Approach for Orthopedic Applications

1Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 2OtoLab, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), 3Dept. of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, 4Immunohematology Operative Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), 5Dept. Of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Emergency Medicine, University of Pisa, 6II Orthopedic and Traumatologic Clinic, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP)

JoVE 54845


 Bioengineering

ADSC-sheet Transplantation to Prevent Stricture after Extended Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

1Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 3UMR-S970, Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Department of Pathology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Department of Radiology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou

JoVE 55018


 Medicine

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

JoVE 53106


 Medicine

Live Imaging of the Ependymal Cilia in the Lateral Ventricles of the Mouse Brain

1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, School of Pharmacy, Rinker Health Science campus

JoVE 52853


 Neuroscience

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The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell: labeling by GFP-fusions, RNAi Interaction Screen and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56101


 JoVE In-Press

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The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56100


 JoVE In-Press

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