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Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.

Mismatch Repair

JoVE 10791

Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires identifying the new strand and replacing the erroneous bases with correct nucleotides. Mismatch repair is coordinated by many proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

The human genome has more than 3 billion base pairs of DNA per cell. Prior to cell division, that vast amount of genetic information needs to be replicated. Despite the proofreading ability of the DNA polymerase, a copying error occurs approximately every 1 million base pairs. One type of error is the mismatch of nucleotides, for example, the pairing of A with G or T with C. Such mismatches are detected and repaired by the Mutator protein family. These proteins were first described in the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), but homologs appear throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutator S (MutS) initiates the mismatch repair (MMR) by identifying and binding to the mismatch. Subsequently, MutL identifies which strand is the new copy. Only the new strand requires fixing while the template strand needs to remain intact. How can the molecular machinery identify the newly synthesized strand of DNA? In many organisms, cytosine and adenine bases of the new strand receive a methyl group some time after replication. Therefore,

 Core: DNA Structure and Function

Microscopy and Staining: Gram, Capsule, and Endospore Staining

JoVE 10513

Source: Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America


Bacteria are diverse microorganisms found nearly everywhere on Earth. Many properties help distinguish them from…

 Microbiology

Gram Staining of Bacteria from Environmental Sources

JoVE 10092

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner


The spectrum of research in environmental microbiology is broad in scope and application potential. Whether the work is bench-scale with known bacterial isolates, or in the field collecting soil or water samples…

 Environmental Microbiology

Combined In vivo Optical and µCT Imaging to Monitor Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Anatomy in an Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Mice

1Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 2PerkinElmer, 3Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 51612

 Medicine

Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, 3Division of EU Cooperation/Microbiology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

JoVE 55147

 Medicine

Live Cell Analysis of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using an Automated Higher-Throughput Microfluidic System

1Department of Chemistry, Doane University, 2Department of Biology, Doane University, 3Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 4Department of Physics and Engineering, Doane University

JoVE 58926

 Bioengineering

Lentiviral Vector Platform for the Efficient Delivery of Epigenome-editing Tools into Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Disease Models

1Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Viral Vector Core, Duke University Medical Center, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 59241

 Genetics

Covalent Immobilization of Proteins for the Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

1Center for Applied Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Munich University of Applied Sciences, 2FG Protein Biochemistry & Cellular Microbiology, Munich University of Applied Sciences, 3Center for Nano Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 4Klinik für Unfallchirurgie, Orthopädie und Plastische Chirurgie, University Medical Center Göttingen

JoVE 58167

 Biochemistry

A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice

1Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 3Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 4Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

JoVE 56053

 Biology

Antimicrobial Peptides Produced by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids

1Department of Biocatalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 2Department of Bioenergetics, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 3Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen

JoVE 57551

 Bioengineering

Construction of Synthetic Phage Displayed Fab Library with Tailored Diversity

1Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, 2Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Terrence Donnelly Center for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Department of Molecular Genetics, Terrence Donnelly Center for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto

JoVE 57357

 Immunology and Infection

Deciphering and Imaging Pathogenesis and Cording of Mycobacterium abscessus in Zebrafish Embryos

1Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques, CNRS, UMR 535, Université Montpellier, 2Centre d'études d'agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CNRS, FRE 3689, Université Montpellier, 3Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences de la Santé, EA3647-EPIM, Université Versailles St Quentin

JoVE 53130

 Immunology and Infection

A Tuberculosis Molecular Bacterial Load Assay (TB-MBLA)

1Division of Infection and Global Health, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, 2National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)-Mbeya Medical Research Centre, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde (INS), Ministério da Saúde, 4Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow

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JoVE 60460

 JoVE In-Press
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