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Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of Carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.

Cofactors and Coenzymes

JoVE 10975

Enzymes require additional components for proper function. There are two such classes of molecules: cofactors and coenzymes. Cofactors are metallic ions and coenzymes are non-protein organic molecules. Both of these types of helper molecule can be tightly bound to the enzyme or bound only when the substrate binds.

Cofactors are present in ~30% of mature proteins. They are frequently incorporated into an enzyme as it is folded and are involved in the enzyme’s catalytic activity. Magnesium is an essential cofactor for over 300 enzymes in the human body, including DNA polymerase. In this case, the magnesium ion aids in the formation of the phosphodiester bond on the DNA backbone. Iron, copper, cobalt, and manganese are other common cofactors. Many vitamins are coenzymes, as they are nonprotein, organic helper molecules for enzymes. For example, biotin—a type of B vitamin—is important in a variety of enzymes that transfer carbon dioxide from one molecule to another.  Biotin, vitamin A and other vitamins must be ingested in our diet, as they cannot be made by human cells.

 Core: Metabolism

An Introduction to Developmental Neurobiology

JoVE 5207

Developmental neuroscience is a field that explores how the nervous system is formed, from early embryonic stages through adulthood. Although it is known that neural progenitor cells follow predictable stages of proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation, the mechanisms controlling the progression through each stage are incompletely understood. Studying…

 Neuroscience

The Ex Vivo Culture and Pattern Recognition Receptor Stimulation of Mouse Intestinal Organoids

1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, 3School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University

JoVE 54033

 Immunology and Infection

Lentiviral Vector Platform for the Efficient Delivery of Epigenome-editing Tools into Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Disease Models

1Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Viral Vector Core, Duke University Medical Center, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 59241

 Genetics

Generation of Microtumors Using 3D Human Biogel Culture System and Patient-derived Glioblastoma Cells for Kinomic Profiling and Drug Response Testing

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Vivo Biosciences, Inc.

JoVE 54026

 Medicine

Imaging Cell Interaction in Tracheal Mucosa During Influenza Virus Infection Using Two-photon Intravital Microscopy

1Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI), 2Graduate School of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bern, 3Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI)

JoVE 58355

 Immunology and Infection

Transplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Sheet to Reduce Leakage After Partial Colectomy in A Rat Model

1Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, 4Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopaedics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 6Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc.

JoVE 57213

 Medicine

Flow Cytometry-based Drug Screening System for the Identification of Small Molecules That Promote Cellular Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospital-Case Medical Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

JoVE 56176

 Cancer Research

Analysis of Retinoic Acid-induced Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Two and Three-dimensional Embryoid Bodies

1Department of Medicine, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Molecular Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Cancer Biology, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University

JoVE 55621

 Developmental Biology

Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Mouse Neural Stem Cells

1Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, 3Department of Biology, ACECR Institute of Higher Education

JoVE 58874

 Neuroscience

Live Imaging of the Ependymal Cilia in the Lateral Ventricles of the Mouse Brain

1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, School of Pharmacy, Rinker Health Science campus

JoVE 52853

 Neuroscience

Application of Retinoic Acid to Obtain Osteocytes Cultures from Primary Mouse Osteoblasts

1Renal Research Laboratory, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Renal Physiopathology Laboratory, Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste

JoVE 51465

 Biology
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