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Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
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Torque

JoVE 10345

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

The goal of this experiment is to understand the components of torque and to balance multiple torques in a system to achieve equilibrium. Much like how a force causes linear acceleration, torque is a force that causes a rotational acceleration. It is defined as the product of a force and the distance of the force from the axis of rotation. If the sum of the torques on a system is equal to zero, the system will not have any angular acceleration.


 Physics I

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Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 52407


 Behavior

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Angular Momentum

JoVE 10358

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Angular momentum is defined as the product of the moment of inertia and the angular velocity of the object. Like its linear analog, angular momentum is conserved, meaning that the total angular momentum of a system will not change if there are no external torques on the system. A torque is the rotational equivalent of a force. Because it is a conserved, angular momentum is an important quantity in physics. The goal of this experiment is to measure the angular momentum of a rotating rod and to use the conservation of angular momentum to explain two rotational demonstrations.


 Physics I

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Force and Acceleration

JoVE 10346

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

The goal of this experiment is to understand the components of force and their relation to motion through the use of Newton's second law by measuring the acceleration of a glider being acted upon by a force. Nearly every aspect of motion in everyday life can be described using Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. They describe how objects in motion will tend to stay in motion (the first law), objects will accelerate when acted upon by a net force (the second law), and every force exerted by an object will have an equal and opposite force exerted back onto that object (the third law). Almost all of high school and undergraduate mechanics is based on these simple concepts.


 Physics I

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Newton's Laws of Motion

JoVE 10038

Source: Andrew Duffy, PhD, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA

This experiment examines at various situations involving two interacting objects.

First, the experiment examines the forces that two objects apply to one another while they collide. The objects are wheeled carts that have variable masses. The purpose of this experiment is to discover when the force the first cart exerts on the other is the same magnitude as the force the second cart exerts back on the first, as well as when these two forces have different magnitudes. Second, it examines the forces that two objects exert on one another when one cart is pushing or pulling the second one. Again, the focus is on exploring the situations in which the two forces have the same magnitude and in which they have different magnitudes.


 Physics I

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Within-subjects Repeated-measures Design

JoVE 10034

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A within-subjects, or repeated-measures, design is an experimental design where all the participants receive every level of the treatment, i.e., every independent variable. For example, in a candy taste test, the researcher would want every participant to taste and rate each type of candy. This video demonstrates a within-subjects experiment (i.e., one where there is an independent variable with several variations or levels) that examines how different motivational messages (e.g., hard work, self-affirmation, outcomes, and positive affect) influence willingness to exert physical effort. As a within-subjects design, the participant will read each of the four types of motivational messages and then lift weights to measure physical effort. By providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a repeated-measures experiment, this video allows viewers to see how to address order effects through counterbalancing, which involves a systematic approach to making sure all possible orders of the conditions occur in the study. Psychological studies often use higher


 Experimental Psychology

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Conservation of Momentum

JoVE 10323

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

The goal of this experiment is to test the concept of the conservation of momentum. By setting up a surface with very little friction, collisions between moving objects can be studied, including their initial and final momenta. The conservation of momentum is one of the most important laws in physics. When something is conserved in physics, the initial value is equal to the final value. For momentum, this means that the total initial momentum of a system will be equal to the total final momentum. Newton's second law states that the force on an object will be equal to the change in the object's momentum with time. This fact, combined with the idea that momentum is conserved, underpins the workings of classical mechanics and is a powerful problem-solving tool.


 Physics I

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Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Motion Analysis Laboratory, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 2Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 53449


 Medicine

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Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 3358


 Neuroscience

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Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice

1Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, 2Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 50023


 Immunology and Infection

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Equilibrium and Free-body Diagrams

JoVE 10359

Source: Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, PhD, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Equilibrium is a special case in mechanics that is very important in everyday life. It occurs when the net force and the net torque on an object or system are both zero. This means that both the linear and angular accelerations are zero. Thus, the object is at rest, or its center of mass is moving at a constant velocity. However, this does not mean that no forces are acting on the objects within the system. In fact, there are very few scenarios on Earth in which no forces are acting upon any given object. If a person walks across a bridge, they exert a downward force on the bridge proportional to their mass, and the bridge exerts an equal and opposite upward force on the person. In some cases, the bridge may flex in response to the downward force of the person, and in extreme cases, when the forces are great enough, the bridge may become seriously deformed or may even fracture. The study of this flexing of objects in equilibrium is called elasticity and becomes extremely important when engineers are designing buildings and structures that we use every day.


 Physics I

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