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פרק 4
סטויכיומטריה של תגובה
A balanced chemical equation provides a great deal of information in a very succinct format. Chemical formulas provide the identities of the…
גורם מגביל
The relative amounts of reactants and products represented in a balanced chemical equation are often referred to as stoichiometric amounts. However,…
ניצולת תגובה
The theoretical yield of a reaction is the amount of product estimated to form based on the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation. The…
תכונות כלליות של תמיסות
Many common substances around us exist as a solution, such as ocean water, air, and gasoline. All solutions are mixtures of substances that are…
ריכוז ודילול תמיסה
The relative amount of a given solution component is known as its concentration. Often, though not always, a solution contains one component with a…
תמיסות אלקטרוליטיות ולא אקלטרוליטיות
Substances that undergo either a physical or a chemical change in solution to yield ions that can conduct electricity are called electrolytes. If a…
מסיסות של תרכובות יונית
Solubility is the measure of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature and pressure.…
תגובות כימיות בתמיסות מימיות
Chemical substances interact in many different ways. Certain chemical reactions exhibit common patterns of reactivity. Due to the vast number of…
תגובות שיקוע
In a precipitation reaction, aqueous solutions of soluble salts react to give an insoluble ionic compound – the precipitate. The reaction…
תגובות חמצון-חיזור
Earth’s atmosphere contains about 20% molecular oxygen, O2, a chemically reactive gas that plays an essential role in the metabolism of…
מספרי חמצון
In redox reactions, the transfer of electrons occurs between reacting species. Electron transfer is described by a hypothetical number called the…
חומצות,בסיסים ותגובות סתירה
An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H+, is transferred from one chemical species to another. Such reactions are of central…
תגובות יצירה ופירוק
Synthesis and decomposition are two types of redox reactions. Synthesis means to make something, whereas decomposition means to break something. The…
מיצוי של ליגנין עם תכולה גבוהה של β-O-4 על-ידי הפקת אתנול מתון והשפעתו על התשואה Depolymerization
Lignin valorization strategies are a key factor for achieving more economically competitive biorefineries based on lignocellulosic biomass. Most of…
ייצור טמפרטורה פשוטה וזולה משטח הקרקע ו Gravimetric תוכן המים חיישנים
Quantifying temperature and moisture at the soil surface is essential for understanding how soil surface biota respond to changes in the environment.…
התהליך הניסיוני במחקרי מעבדה של <em>בחיי עיר</em> בוער: דליקות והיעילות צריבה של נפט גולמי
A new method for the simultaneous study of the flammability and burning efficiency of fresh and weathered crude oil through two experimental…

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