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פרק 7
הטבע הגלי של האור
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
הספקטרום האלקטרומגנטי
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
התאבכות ועקיפה
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
האפקט הפוטואלקטרי
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
מודל בוהר
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
ספקטרום פליטה
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
אורך גל דה ברולי
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
עיקרון אי הוודאות
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
המודל הקוונטום-מכני של האטום
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
מספרים קוונטים
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
אורביטלים אטומיים
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
האנרגיות של אורביטלים אטומיים
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
עקרון האיסור של פאולי
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
עקרון אפבאו וחוק הונד
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
תצורת אלקטרונים של אטומים מרובי אקלטרונים
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
אפיון פליטות לייזר רחוק אינפרה-אדומות והמדידה של התדרים שלהם
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
סינכרוטרון Microdiffraction רנטגן והדמיה זריחה של דגימות הסלע המינרלים
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
בטכניקת מדידת טמפרטורה אינפרא אדום המקיפים של אינדוקציה המחוממת קטן מגנטי כדור מים
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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