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Волновая природа света
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
Электромагнитный спектр
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
Интерференция и дифракция
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
Фотоэлектрический эффект
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
Модель Бора
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
Спектры излучения
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
Длина волны де Бройля
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
Принцип неопределенности
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
Квантовая механическая модель атома.
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
Квантовые числа
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
Атомные орбитали
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
Принцип исключения Паули
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
Энергии атомных орбиталей
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
Принцип Ауфбау и правило Хунда
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
Электронная конфигурация многоэлектронных атомов.
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
Характеризуя Дальнего инфракрасного лазерного выбросов и измерения их частоты
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
Синхротрона рентгеновских Microdiffraction и флуоресценции изображений минеральных и образцов скальных пород
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…

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