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Capítulo 7
A Natureza Ondulatória da Luz
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
O Espectro Eletromagnético
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
Interferência e Difração
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
Efeito Fotoelétrico
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
O Modelo de Bohr
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
Espectros de Emissão
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
O Comprimento de Onda de de Broglie
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
O Princípio da Incerteza
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
O Modelo Mecânico-Quântico de um Átomo
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
Números Quânticos
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
Orbitais Atómicas
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
O Princípio da Exclusão de Pauli
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
As Energias das Orbitais Atómicas
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
O Princípio de Aufbau e a Regra de Hund
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
Configuração Eletrónica de Átomos com Múltiplos Eletrões
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
A caracterização das emissões laser Far-infrared e da medição de suas frequências
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
Síncrotron Microdiffraction de raio-x e imagem latente de fluorescência das amostras de rocha e minerais
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
Técnica de medição de temperatura infravermelha para a água ao redor de uma esfera magnética pequena aquecida a indução
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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