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光的波动本质
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
电磁频谱
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
干涉和衍射
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
光电效应
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
玻尔模型
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
发射光谱
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
德布罗意波长
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
不确定性原则
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
原子的量子力学模型
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
量子数
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
原子轨道
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
保利排除原则(PEP)亦称:泡利不相容原理
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
原子轨道的能量
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
构造原理与洪德规则
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
多电子原子的电子构型
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
表征远红外激光辐射及其频率的测量
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
矿物和岩石样品的同步辐射 x 射线 Microdiffraction 和荧光成像
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
感应加热小磁球周围水近红外测温技术
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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