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Capitolo 11
Confronto molecolare di gas, liquidi e solidi
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Forze intermolecolari vs intramolecolari
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Forze intermolecolari
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Confronto delle forze intermolecolari: punto di fusione, punto di ebollizione e miscibilità
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Tensione superficiale, azione capillare e viscosità
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Transizioni di fase
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Transizioni di fase: vaporizzazione e condensazione
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Pressione del vapore
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Equazione di Clausius-Clapeyron
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Transizioni di fase: fusione e congelamento
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Transizioni di fase: sublimazione e deposizione
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Curve di riscaldamento e raffreddamento
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Diagrammi di fase
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Strutture dei solidi
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
Centratura e coordinamento reticolare
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Solidi molecolari e ionici
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
Strutture cristalline ioniche
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Solidi metallici
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Teoria delle bande
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Solidi covalenti a reticolo
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
Cristallografia a raggi X.
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
Un metodo per manipolare Tensione superficiale di un metallo liquido tramite ossidazione superficiale e riduzione
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
Caratterizzazione delle glicoproteine con la piega di immunoglobulina mediante cristallografia a raggi x e tecniche biofisiche
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Fabbricando goccioline ad alta viscosità mediante capillare dispositivo microfluidico con struttura di co-flusso di inversione di fase
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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