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Chapter 15

Acids and Bases

Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
The acid-base reaction class has been studied for quite some time. In 1680, Robert Boyle reported traits of acid solutions that included their…
Acid/Base Strengths and Dissociation Constants
The relative strength of an acid or base is the extent to which it ionizes when dissolved in water. If the ionization reaction is essentially…
Water: A Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base
The reaction between a Brønsted-Lowry acid and water is called acid ionization. For example, when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water and…
pH Scale
Hydronium and hydroxide ions are present both in pure water and in all aqueous solutions, and their concentrations are inversely proportional as…
Relative Strengths of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Brønsted-Lowry acid-base chemistry is the transfer of protons; thus, logic suggests a relation between the relative strengths of conjugate…
Strong Acid and Base Solutions
A strong acid is a compound that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution and produces a concentration of hydronium ions equal to the initial…
Weak Acid Solutions
Few compounds act as strong acids. A far greater number of compounds behave as weak acids and only partially react with water, leaving a large…
Weak Base Solutions
Some compounds produce hydroxide ions when dissolved by chemically reacting with water molecules. In all cases, these compounds react only partially…
Mixtures of Acids
The pH of a solution containing an acid can be determined using its acid dissociation constant and its initial concentration. If a solution contains…
Ions as Acids and Bases
Salts with Acidic Ions Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions, either of which may be capable of undergoing an acid or base…
Determining the pH of Salt Solutions
The pH of a salt solution is determined by its component anions and cations. Salts that contain pH-neutral anions and the hydronium ion-producing…
Polyprotic Acids
Acids are classified by the number of protons per molecule that they can give up in a reaction. Acids such as HCl, HNO3, and HCN that contain one…
Acid Strength and Molecular Structure
Binary Acids and Bases In the absence of any leveling effect, the acid strength of binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals (A) increases as the…
Lewis Acids and Bases
In 1923, G. N. Lewis proposed a generalized definition of acid-base behavior in which acids and bases are identified by their ability to accept or to…
Characterizing Lewis Pairs Using Titration Coupled with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy
Lewis acid-activation of carbonyl-containing substrates is a fundamental basis for facilitating transformations in organic chemistry. Historically,…
Sedimentation Equilibrium of a Small Oligomer-forming Membrane Protein: Effect of Histidine Protonation on Pentameric Stability
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can be used to study reversible interactions between macromolecules over a wide range of interaction strengths…
Tuning the Acidity of Pt/ CNTs Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Diphenyl Ether
We herein present a method for the synthesis of HNbWO6, HNbMoO6, HTaWO6 solid acid nanosheet modified Pt/CNTs. By varying the weight of various solid…

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