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פרק 15
ברונסטד-לאורי חומצות ובסיסים
The acid-base reaction class has been studied for quite some time. In 1680, Robert Boyle reported traits of acid solutions that included their…
חוזקי חומצה/בסיס וקבועי פירוק
The relative strength of an acid or base is the extent to which it ionizes when dissolved in water. If the ionization reaction is essentially…
מים: חומצת ובסיס ברונסטד-לאורי
The reaction between a Brønsted-Lowry acid and water is called acid ionization. For example, when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water and…
סקאלת pH
Hydronium and hydroxide ions are present both in pure water and in all aqueous solutions, and their concentrations are inversely proportional as…
חוזקים יחסיים של זוגות חומצה-בסיס מצומדים
Brønsted-Lowry acid-base chemistry is the transfer of protons; thus, logic suggests a relation between the relative strengths of conjugate…
תמיסות חומצה ובסיס חזקים
A strong acid is a compound that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution and produces a concentration of hydronium ions equal to the initial…
תמיסות חומצה חלשה
Few compounds act as strong acids. A far greater number of compounds behave as weak acids and only partially react with water, leaving a large…
תמיסות בסיס חלש
Some compounds produce hydroxide ions when dissolved by chemically reacting with water molecules. In all cases, these compounds react only partially…
תערובת של חומצות
The pH of a solution containing an acid can be determined using its acid dissociation constant and its initial concentration. If a solution contains…
יונים כחומצות ובסיסים
Salts with Acidic Ions Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions, either of which may be capable of undergoing an acid or base…
קביעת הpH של תמיסות מלח
The pH of a salt solution is determined by its component anions and cations. Salts that contain pH-neutral anions and the hydronium ion-producing…
חומצות רב פרוטיות
Acids are classified by the number of protons per molecule that they can give up in a reaction. Acids such as HCl, HNO3, and HCN that contain one…
חוזק חומצה ומבנה מולקולרי
Binary Acids and Bases In the absence of any leveling effect, the acid strength of binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals (A) increases as the…
חומצות ובסיסי לואיס
In 1923, G. N. Lewis proposed a generalized definition of acid-base behavior in which acids and bases are identified by their ability to accept or to…
אפיון לואיס זוגות שימוש בטיטור בשילוב עם ספקטרוסקופיה אינפרא-אדום באתרו
Lewis acid-activation of carbonyl-containing substrates is a fundamental basis for facilitating transformations in organic chemistry. Historically,…
שקיעת שיווי משקל של חלבון ממברנה הקטן oligomer יוצרי: אפקט של היסטידין protonation על pentameric יציבות
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can be used to study reversible interactions between macromolecules over a wide range of interaction strengths…
כוונון החומציות של מזרזים Pt/CNTs להידרוחמצון אתר
We herein present a method for the synthesis of HNbWO6, HNbMoO6, HTaWO6 solid acid nanosheet modified Pt/CNTs. By varying the weight of various solid…

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