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الفصل 2

الكيمياء الحيوية الخاصة بالخلية

الجدول الدوري والعناصر العضوية
Elements are the smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down further by chemical processes. There are 118 known elements, but not all of…
المجموعات الوظيفية
Functional groups are a group of atoms with characteristic properties, which when linked to the carbon skeleton of a molecule, alter the properties…
البوليمرات
The word polymer is derived from the Greek words “poly” which means “many” and “mer” which means…
ما هي الدهون؟
Lipids are a group of structurally and functionally diverse organic compounds that are insoluble in water. Certain classes of lipids, such as fats,…
هيكلية الدهون
Lipids include a diverse group of compounds that are largely nonpolar in nature. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar…
كيمياء الكربوهيدرات
Carbohydrates are an essential part of the diet in humans and animals. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are natural sources of carbohydrates that…
ما هي الأحماض النووية؟
Nucleic acids are long chains of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid,…
القوى بين الجزيئات
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
جذب غير متساهمى بين الجزيئات الحيوية
Noncovalent attractions are associations within and between molecules that influence the shape and structural stability of complexes. These…
الأسّ الهيدروجيني
The potential for a solution to donate or accept hydrogen ions determines whether it is an acid or a base. Acidic solutions donate protons, whereas…
التحلل المائي لـ ATP
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…

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