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Chapter 11
Transcription Attenuation in Prokaryotes
Transcriptional attenuation occurs when RNA transcription is prematurely terminated due to the formation of a terminator mRNA hairpin…
Riboswitches
Riboswitches are non-coding mRNA domains that regulate the transcription and translation of downstream genes without the help of proteins.…
RNA Editing
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification where a precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) nucleotide sequence is changed by base insertion, deletion, or…
Regulated mRNA Transport
In eukaryotes, transcription and translation are compartmentalized; an mRNA is first synthesized in the nucleus and then selectively transported to…
Leaky Scanning
During most eukaryotic translation processes, the small 40S ribosome subunit scans an mRNA from its 5' end until it encounters the first start…
mRNA Stability and Gene Expression
The structure and stability of mRNA molecules regulates gene expression, as mRNAs are a key step in the pathway from gene to protein. In eukaryotes,…
RNA Interference
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
MicroRNAs
MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, regulatory RNA transcribed from introns—non-coding regions of a gene—or intergenic regions—stretches of…
siRNA - Small Interfering RNAs
Small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, are short regulatory RNA molecules that can silence genes post-transcriptionally, as well as the transcriptional…
piRNA - Piwi-interacting RNAs
PIWI-interacting RNAs, or piRNAs, are the most abundant short non-coding RNAs. More than 20,000 genes have been found in humans that code for piRNAs…
CRISPR and crRNAs
Bacteria and archaea are susceptible to viral infections just like eukaryotes; therefore, they have developed a unique adaptive immune system to…
lncRNA - Long Non-coding RNAs
In humans, more than 80% of the genome gets transcribed. However, only around 2% of the genome codes for proteins. The remaining part produces…
Ribozymes
The term ribozyme is used for RNA that can act as an enzyme. Ribozymes are mainly found in selected viruses, bacteria, plant organelles, and lower…
Conditions on Early Earth
Around 4 billion years ago, oceans began to condense on earth while volcanic eruptions released nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and…
Merging Absolute and Relative Quantitative PCR Data to Quantify STAT3 Splice Variant Transcripts
Human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of many genes containing a tandem splicing site. Alternative donor splice…
Efficient Transcriptionally Controlled Plasmid Expression System for Investigation of the Stability of mRNA Transcripts in Primary Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Studying posttranscriptional regulation is fundamental to understanding the modulation of a given messenger RNA (mRNA) and its impact on cell…
RNA Interference in Aquatic Beetles as a Powerful Tool for Manipulating Gene Expression at Specific Developmental Time Points
RNA interference (RNAi) remains a powerful technique that allows for the targeted reduction of gene expression through mRNA degradation. This…

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