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Chapter 15
Recombinant DNA
Scientists create recombinant DNA by combining DNA from different sources—often, other species—in the laboratory. DNA cloning allows…
DNA Isolation and Restriction Enzymes
DNA isolation protocols can be fast and straightforward or complex and time-consuming depending on the type and quality of DNA required for further…
DNA Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a laboratory technique commonly used to separate DNA fragments by size. However, it can also be used to isolate and…
Labeling DNA Probes
DNA probes are fragments of DNA labeled with a reporter tag to enable their detection or purification. The resulting labeled DNA probes can then…
Southern Blot
Agarose gel electrophoresis is very useful in separating DNA fragments by size. Running a DNA ladder containing fragments of the known length…
DNA Microarrays
Microarrays are high-throughput and relatively inexpensive assays that can be automated to analyze large quantities of data at a time. They are used…
Complementary DNA
Only genes that are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) are active, or expressed. Scientists can, therefore, extract the mRNA from cells to study…
FISH - Fluorescent In-situ Hybridization
Fluorescence in situ hybridization or FISH was developed in the early 1980s and has quickly become one of the most widely used techniques in…
PCR
The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a widely used technique for copying segments of DNA. Due to exponential amplification, PCR can produce…
Real-Time PCR
Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, or Real-time RT-PCR, is an analytical tool used to determine the expression level of…
RACE - Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends
Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends or RACE is one of the most effective methods to obtain a full-length cDNA from an mRNA sequence between a known…
Genome Sequencing I - Traditional Methods
DNA sequencing is a fundamental technique that is routinely used in the biological sciences. This method can be applied to a range of questions at…
Genome Sequencing II - Next-Gen Methods
The first human genome sequencing project cost $2.7 billion and was declared complete in 2003, after 15 years of international cooperation and…
RNA-seq
RNA sequencing or RNA-Seq is a high-throughput sequencing technology used to study the transcriptome of a cell. Transcriptomics helps to interpret…
Genome Annotation and Assembly
The genome refers to all of the genetic material in an organism. It can range from a few million base pairs in microbial cells to several billion…
Identification of Homologous Recombination Events in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Southern Blotting and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Relative to the issues of off-target effects and the difficulty of inserting a long DNA fragment in the application of designer nucleases for genome…
High-Density DNA and RNA microarrays - Photolithographic Synthesis, Hybridization and Preparation of Large Nucleic Acid Libraries
Photolithography is a powerful technique for the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides on glass slides, as it combines the efficiency of phosphoramidite…
Combined DNA-RNA Fluorescent <em>In situ</em> Hybridization (FISH) to Study X Chromosome Inactivation in Differentiated Female Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique which enables the detection of nucleic acids in cells. DNA FISH is often used in…

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