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Chapter 7

Metabolism

What is Metabolism?
Metabolism represents all of the chemical activity in a cell, including reactions that build molecules (anabolism) and those that break molecules…
First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. This can be demonstrated within a classic food…
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy, or the amount of disorder in a system, increases each time energy is transferred or…
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the ability of an object in motion to do work or enact change. It can take on many forms. For instance, water flowing down a…
Potential Energy
Potential energy is a stored form of energy that has the potential to do work, and therefore, to be converted into kinetic energy. Gravitational…
Free Energy
Free energy—abbreviated as G for the scientist Gibbs who discovered it—is a measurement of useful energy that can be extracted from a…
Activation Energy
Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy necessary for a chemical reaction to move forward. The higher the activation energy, the slower the…
Hydrolysis of ATP
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…
Phosphorylation
The addition or removal of phosphate groups from proteins is the most common chemical modification that regulates cellular processes. These…
Induced-fit Model
Most chemical reactions in cells require enzymes—biological catalysts that speed up the reaction without being used up or permanently changed.…
Enzyme Kinetics
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reactants. The speed at which the enzyme turns reactants into products is called…
Enzyme Inhibition
Inhibitors are molecules that reduce enzyme activity by binding to the enzyme. In a normally functioning cell, enzymes are regulated by a variety of…
Feedback Inhibition
Biochemical reactions are occurring constantly in cells, converting starting substances to different products, usually with the help of enzymes that…
Allosteric Regulation
Allosteric regulation of enzymes occurs when the binding of a molecule to a different location from the active site causes a change in enzymatic…
Cofactors and Coenzymes
Enzymes require additional components for proper function. There are two such classes of molecules: cofactors and coenzymes. Cofactors are metallic…
Study of <em>In Vivo</em> Glucose Metabolism in High-fat Diet-fed Mice Using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT)
Obesity represents the most important single risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, a disease which is characterized by a resistance to…
A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood
Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases.…
Glucose Uptake Measurement and Response to Insulin Stimulation in <em>In Vitro</em> Cultured Human Primary Myotubes
Skeletal muscle is the largest glucose deposit in mammals and largely contributes to glucose homeostasis. Assessment of insulin sensitivity of muscle…

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