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Chapter 7

Metabolism

What is Metabolism?
Overview Metabolism represents all of the chemical activity in a cell, including reactions that build molecules (anabolism) and those that break…
First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. This can be demonstrated within a classic food…
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy, or the amount of disorder in a system, increases each time energy is transferred or…
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the ability of an object in motion to do work or enact change. It can take on many forms. For instance, water flowing down a…
Potential Energy
Potential energy is a stored form of energy that has the potential to do work, and therefore, to be converted into kinetic energy. Gravitational…
Free Energy
Free energy—abbreviated as G for the scientist Gibbs who discovered it—is a measurement of useful energy that can be extracted from a…
Activation Energy
Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy necessary for a chemical reaction to move forward. The higher the activation energy, the slower the…
Hydrolysis of ATP
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…
Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation—the addition of a phosphate group—is an important modification for cells to regulate protein function. The Process When…
Induced-fit Model
Most chemical reactions in cells require enzymes—biological catalysts that speed up the reaction without being used up or permanently changed.…
Feedback Inhibition
Biochemical reactions are occurring constantly in cells, converting starting substances to different products, usually with the help of enzymes that…
Study of <em>In Vivo</em> Glucose Metabolism in High-fat Diet-fed Mice Using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT)
Obesity represents the most important single risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, a disease which is characterized by a resistance to…
A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood
Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases.…
Glucose Uptake Measurement and Response to Insulin Stimulation in <em>In Vitro</em> Cultured Human Primary Myotubes
Skeletal muscle is the largest glucose deposit in mammals and largely contributes to glucose homeostasis. Assessment of insulin sensitivity of muscle…

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