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Что такое клеточное дыхание?
Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable…
Что такое гликолиз?
Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy” (from…
Энергопотребляющие этапы гликолиза
Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
Высвобождающие энергию этапы гликолиза
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
Результаты гликолиза
Nearly all the energy used by cells comes from the bonds that make up complex, organic compounds. These organic compounds are broken down into…
Окисление пирувата
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
Цикл лимонной кислоты
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
Продукты цикла лимонной кислоты
The cells of most organisms—including plants and animals—obtain usable energy through aerobic respiration, the oxygen-requiring version…
Цепочки переноса электронов
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
Химический осмос
Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that…
Переносчики электронов
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
Продуктивность АТФ
Cellular respiration produces 30-32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Although most of the ATP results from oxidative phosphorylation and the…
Ферментация
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
Пищевые связи
Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and…
Высокое разрешение респирометрии для оценки митохондриальной функции в проницаемыми и неповрежденных клеток
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
Оптимизированный протокол для анализа гликолиза и митохондриального дыхания в лимфоцитах
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
Лечение СЦА1 мышей с водорастворимых соединений для неспецифического увеличения митохондриальной функции
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
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