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Kapitel 23
Was sind Osmoregulation und Ausscheidung?
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
Die Struktur der Niere
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
Filterung
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
Harnstoff-Zyklus
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
Hormonelle Regulierung
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
Beträchtliche Ausscheidungssysteme
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
Osmoregulation in Fischen
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
Osmoregulation der Insekten
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…
Physiology Lab Demonstration: glomeruläre Filtrationsrate in einem Ratten-
Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal…
Integration von miniaturisierter Festphasenextraktion und LC-MS / MS-Nachweis von 3-Nitrotyrosin im menschlichen Urin für klinische Anwendungen
Free 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been extensively used as a possible biomarker for oxidative stress. Increased levels of 3-NT have been reported in a…

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